Efficacy of fractionated γ-irradiation to eliminate vegetative and spore forms of Bacillus cereus from raw rice was studied. Viable bacteria and spores count performed after irradiation treatment revealed that vegetative cells and spores (7.9 and 7.7 log CFU/g) of B. cereus in raw rice tolerated γ-irradiation up to 10 and 20 kGy, respectively and were eliminated at 15 and 25 kGy respectively on single treatment. Exactly 2 times of 5 kGy irradiation treatment eliminated all vegetative B. cereus (7.9 log CFU/g). A treatment with fractionated doses of γ-irradiation effectively eliminated vegetative bacteria but not spores of B. cereus. Field emission SEM images revealed the damage by γ-irradiation to the spore exosporium. This study suggests new approach of using fractionated doses of γ-irradiation to eliminate foodborne pathogens in food which are affected by high doses of γ-irradiation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
World Health Organization. Food safety and foodborne illness. Fact sheet Number 237, Reviewed March 2007. World Health Organization, Media centre (2011). Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs237/en/. Accessed Feb. 12, 2012.
Gwack J, Lee KC, Lee HJ, Kwak W, Lee DW, Choi, YH, Kim JS, Kang YA. Trends in water- and foodborne disease outbreaks in Korea 2007–2009. Public Health Res. Perspect. 1: 50–54 (2010)
Horchner PM, Pointon AM. HACCP-based program for on-farm food safety for pig production in Australia. Food Control 22: 1674–1688 (2011)
Todd ECD, Michaels BS, Smith D, Greig JD, Bartleson CA. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 9. Washing and drying of hands to reduce microbial contamination. J. Food Protect. 73: 1937–1955 (2010)
Mendonca AF, Romero MG, Lihono MA, Nannapeneni R, Johnson MG. Radiation resistance and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A following starvation in physiological saline. J. Food Protect. 67: 470–474 (2004)
Song HP, Kim DH, Jo C, Lee CH, Kim KS, Byun MW. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and antioxidant activity of fresh vegetable juice. Food Microbiol. 23: 372–378 (2006)
World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization, 1991. Food irradiation: A technique for preserving and improving the safety of food. Geneva: WHO, (revised). Available from: http://webcat.hud.ac.uk/ipac20/ipac.jsp. Accessed Feb. 14, 2012.
SarrÌas JA, Valero M, Salmerón MC. Elimination of Bacillus cereus contamination in raw rice by electron beam irradiation. Food Microbiol. 20: 327–332 (2003)
Mtenga AB, Kassim N, Lee WG, Shim WB, Yoon Y, Chung DH. Resistance of Bacillus cereus and its enterotoxin genes in ready-toeat foods to γ-irradiation. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 21: 443–452 (2012)
Setlow P. Spores of Bacillus subtilis: Their resistance to and killing by radiation, heat, and chemicals. J. Appl. Microbiol. 101: 514–525 (2006)
Spotheim-Maurizota M, Davídkováb M. Radiation damage to DNA in DNA-protein complexes. Mutat. Res. 711: 41–48 (2011)
World Health Organization. High-dose irradiation: Wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy. Technical Report Series no. 890. WHO, Geneva. (1999) Available from: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/fs_management/en/irrad.pdf. Accessed Feb. 14, 2012.
Johnson KM. Bacillus cereus food-borne illness. An update. J. Food Protect. 47: 145–153 (1984)
Arnesen LPS, Fagerlund A, Granum PE. From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins. Fems Microbiol. Rev. 32: 579–606 (2008)
Ehling-Schulz M, Fricker M, Scherer S. Bacillus cereus, the causative agent of an emetic type of food-borne illness. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 48: 479–487 (2004)
Kramer JM, Gilbert RJ. Bacillus cereus and other Bacillus species. pp. 21–77. In: Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens. Doyle MP (ed). Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA (1989)
Kramer JM, Gilbert RJ. Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis. Vol. vii, pp. 119–153. In: Food Poisoning: Handbook of Natural Toxins. Tu AT (ed). Marcel Dekker, NewYork, NY, USA (1992)
Kotiranta A, Lounatmaa K, Haapasalo M. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus infections. Microbes Infect. 2: 189–198 (2000)
Nicholson WL, Munakata N, Horneck G, Melosh HJ, Setlow P. Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. R. 64: 548–572 (2000)
SarrÌas J, Valero A, Salmerón MC. Enumeration, isolation, and characterization of Bacillus cereus strains from Spanish raw rice. Food Microbiol. 19: 589–595 (2002)
Granum PE. Bacillus cereus. pp. 373–381. In: Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers. Doyle MP (ed). ASM Press, Washington, DC, USA (2001)
De Lara J, Ferná Ndez PS, Periago PM, Palop A. Irradiation of spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis with electron beams innovative. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 3: 379–384 (2002)
Préstamo G, Pedrazuela A, Guignon B, Sanz PD. Synergy between high-pressure, temperature, and ascorbic acid on the inactivation of Bacillus cereus. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 225: 693–698 (2007)
Fernández A, Ocio MJ, Fernández PS, Rodrigo M, MartÌnez A. Application of nonlinear regression analysis to the estimation of kinetic parameters for two enterotoxic strains of Bacillus cereus spores. Food Microbiol. 16: 607–613 (1999)
Shin SY, Bajpai VK, Kim HR, Kang SC. Antibacterial activity of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against foodborne and food spoilage microorganisms. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 40: 1515–1519 (2007)
Kirkman TW. 1996 Statistics to Use. Available from: http://www.physics.csbsju.edu/stats/. Accessed Jan. 2, 2012.
Kim HJ, Ham JS, Lee JW, Kim K, Ha SD, Jo C. Effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the survival of pathogens inoculated into sliced and pizza cheeses. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 79: 731–734 (2010)
Moini S, Tahergorabi R, Hosseini SV, Rabbani M, Tahergorabi Z, Feás X, Aflaki F. Effect of gamma radiation on the quality and shelf life of refrigerated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets. J. Food Protect. 72: 1419–1426 (2009)
Trigo MJ, Sousa MB, Sapata MM, Ferreira A, Curado T, Andrada L, Botelho ML, Veloso MG. Radiation processing of minimally processed vegetables and aromatic plants. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 78: 659–663 (2009)
Thayer DW, Boyd G, Fox JB, Lakritz L, Hampson JW. Variations in radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with the suspending meat. J. Food Sci. 60: 63–67 (1995)
Monk JD, Clavero RS, Beuchat LR, Doyle MP, Brackett RE. Irradiation inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in low- and high-fat, frozen, and refrigerated ground beef. J. Food Protect. 57: 969–974 (1994)
Thayer DW, Boyd G. Effect of irradiation temperature on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus. J. Food Protect. 64: 1624–1626 (2001)
Glidewell SM, Deighton N, Goodman BA, Hillman JR. Detection of irradiated food: A review. J. Sci. Food Agr. 61: 281–300 (1993)
Thakur BR, Singh RK. Food irradiations chemistry and applications. Food Rev. Int. 10: 437–473 (1994)
Grecz N, Rowley DB, Matsuyama A. The action of radiation on bacteria and viruses. Vol. ii, pp. 167–218. In: Preservation of Food by Ionizing Radiation. Josephson ES, Peterson MS (eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA (1983)
Trampuz A, Piper KE, Steckelberg JM, Patel R. Effect of gamma irradiation on viability and DNA of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli. J. Med. Microbiol. 55: 1271–1275 (2006)
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Mtenga, A.B., Kassim, N., Shim, WB. et al. Efficiency of fractionated γ-irradiation doses to eliminate vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus from raw rice. Food Sci Biotechnol 22, 577–584 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-013-0117-6
- Bacillus cereus
- vegetative cell