Changes in the content of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in black garlic at the different thermal processing steps

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to measure the content of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in garlic and to assess the influence of thermal processes on garlic. The total water-soluble vitamin content increased by about 1.15–1.92 times in black garlic than that in fresh garlic. The total water-soluble vitamin content of the BG4 (70°C and 60% RH for 60 h) sample was significantly higher than that of any other sample (p<0.05). In general, the total fat-soluble vitamin content decreased with each successive thermal processing step. The total fat-soluble vitamin content of the raw garlic cloves (FG) sample was significantly higher than that of any other sample (p<0.05).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Rivlin R. Historical perspective on the use of garlic. J. Nutr. 131: 951S–954S (2001)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Bae SE, Cho SY, Won YD, Lee SH, Park HJ. A comparative study of the different analytical methods for analysis of S-allyl cysteine in black garlic by HPLC. LWT-Food Sci.Technol. 46: 532–535 (2012)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ball GMF. Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA. p. 3 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Finglas PM, Faure U, Wagstaffe PJ. Improvements in the determination of vitamins in food through intercomparisons and preparation of RMs for vitamin analysis within the BCR1 programme. J. Anal. Chem. 345: 180–184 (1993)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Machlin LJ. Handbook of Vitamins. 2nd ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY, USA. pp. 7, 167 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ottaway PB. The Technology of Vitamins in Food. Chapman & Hall, Inc., New York, NY, USA. pp. 172, 232 (1993)

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Cho CM, Ko JH, Cheong WJ. Simultaneous determination of watersoluble vitamins excreted in human urine after eating an overdose of vitamin pills by a HPLC method coupled with a solid phase extraction. Talanta 51: 799–806 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Kwok KC, Shiu YW, Yeung CH, Niranjan K. Effect of thermal processing on available lysine, thiamine, and riboflavin content in soymilk. J. Sci. Food Agr. 77: 473–478 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ang CYW, Chang CM, Frey AE, Livingston GE. Effects of heating methods on vitamin retention in six fresh or frozen prepared food products. J. Food Sci. 40: 997–1003 (1975)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ball GMF. Vitamins in Foods: Analysis, Bioavailability, and Stability. Chapman & Hall, London, UK. pp. 439–496 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Gadient M. Effect of pelleting on nutritional quality of feed. PhD thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (1986)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Shimizu S, Kataoka M. Pantothenic Acid and Related Compounds. Wiley, New York, NY, USA. pp. 1923–1934 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Herrero M, Cifuentes A, Ibáñez E. Comprehensive Sampling and Sample Preparation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Holland. p. 3 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Frankel EN. Lipid Oxidation. Oil Press, Dundee, UK. pp.187–225 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Charley H. Food Science. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA. pp. 33–45, 124–130, 232–245 (1982)

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ames SR. Tocopherols: Occurrence in Foods. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA. pp. 233–248 (1972)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Yoshida H, Takagi S. Effects of seed roasting temperature and time of the quality characteristics of sesame (Sesamumindicum) oil. J. Sci. Food Agr. 75: 19–26 (1997)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lane RH, Quereshi AA, Salser WA. Tocotrienols and tocotrienollike compounds and methods for their use. U.S. Patent 5, 591, 772 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Moreau R, Hicks KB, Powell MJ. Effect of heat pretreatment on the yield and composition of oil extracted from corn fiber. J. Agr. Food Chem. 47: 2869–2871 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Dutra-de-Oliveira JE, Marchini JS. Ciências Nutricionais (Nutritional Sciencies). Sarvier, São Paulo, Brazil. pp. 87–97 (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Ryley J, Kajda P. Vitamins in thermal processing. Food Chem. 49: 119–129 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ji-Sang Kim.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kim, J., Kang, O. & Gweon, O. Changes in the content of fat- and water-soluble vitamins in black garlic at the different thermal processing steps. Food Sci Biotechnol 22, 283–287 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-013-0039-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • fat-soluble vitamin
  • water-soluble vitamin
  • black garlic
  • thermal processing