Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 1501–1506 | Cite as

Arabinogalactan-type polysaccharides (APS) from Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) induces innate immune activity of THP-1 monocytes through promoting their macrophage differentiation and macrophage activity

  • Dong Ki Park
  • Toshimitsu Hayashi
  • Hye-Jin ParkEmail author
Research Note


In this study, the immunemodulatory activities of arabinogalactans-type polysaccharide (APS) from Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans was evaluated in THP-1 human monocytes. The cellular size and the number of intracellular organelles of THP-1 monocytes were increased by APS. Also, APS-treated THP-1 cells significantly developed cellular adherence and macrophagic differentiation to the culture plate surface. APS noticeably enhanced phagocytic activity of THP-1 cells against IgG-FITC-latex beads. APS induced the level of TNF-α, IL-12 p40, and IL-8 as well as TLR2 and TLR4 mRNAs. APS can be developed as a promising immunmodulating agent with macrophage-activating properties.


arabinogalactans-type polysaccharide (APS) innate immunity phagocytosis macrophage differentiation THP-1 monocyte 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Puertollano MA, Puertollano E, de Cienfuegos GA, de Pablo MA. Dietary antioxidants: Immunity and host defense. Curr. Top. Med. Chem. 11: 1752–1766 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Goodridge HS, Wolf AJ, Underhill DM. Beta-glucan recognition by the innate immune system. Immunol. Rev. 230: 38–50 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Underhill DM. Collaboration between the innate immune receptors dectin-1, TLRs, and Nods. Immunol. Rev. 219: 75–87 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mitchell GB, Albright BN, Caswell JL. Effect of interleukin-8 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on priming and activation of bovine neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 71: 1643–1649 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Werling D, Jungi TW. Toll-like receptors linking innate and adaptive immune response. Vet. Immunol. Immunop. 91: 1–12 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Harris G, KuoLee R, Chen W. Role of Toll-like receptors in health and diseases of gastrointestinal tract. World J. Gastroentero. 12: 2149–2160 (2006)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geissmann F, Manz MG, Jung S, Sieweke MH, Merad M, Ley K. Development of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Science 327: 656–661 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sokol RJ, Hudson G, James NT, Frost IJ, Wales J. Human macrophage development: A morphometric study. J. Anat. 151: 27–35 (1987)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cherayil BJ, Antos D. Inducible nitric oxide synthase and Salmonella infection. Microb. Infect. 3: 771–776 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schepetkin IA, Xie G, Kirpotina LN, Klein RA, Jutila MA, Quinn MT. Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 8: 1455–1466 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohta Y, Lee JB, Hayashi K, Fujita A, Park DK, Hayashi T. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans. J. Agr. Food Chem. 55: 10194–10199 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Park HJ, Han ES, Park DK, Lee C, Lee KW. An extract of Phellinus linteus grown on germinated brown rice inhibits inflammation markers in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators and upregulating antioxidant activity. J. Med. Food. 13: 1468–1477 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Park HJ, Han ES, Park DK. The ethyl acetate extract of PGP (Phellinus linteus grown on Panax ginseng) suppresses B16F10 melanoma cell proliferation through inducing cellular differentiation and apoptosis. J. Ethnopharmacol. 132: 115–121 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han ES, Oh JY, Park HJ. Cordyceps militaris extract suppresses dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and production of inflammatory mediators from macrophages and mast cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 134: 703–710 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaurnier-Hausser A, Rothman VL, Dimitrov S, Tuszynski GP. The novel angiogenic inhibitor, angiocidin, induces differentiation of monocytes to macrophages. Cancer Res. 68: 5905–5914 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Koeffler HP, Bar-Eli M, Territo MC. Phorbol ester effect on differentiation of human myeloid leukemia cell lines blocked at different stages of maturation. Cancer Res. 41: 919–926 (1981)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vinals M, Bermudez I, Llaverias G. Aspirin increases CD36, SR-BI, and ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages. Cardiovasc. Res. 66: 141–149 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gordon S, Taylor PR. Monocyte and macrophage heterogeneity. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5: 953–964 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Delano MJ, Thayer T, Gabrilovich S. Sepsis induces early alterations in innate immunity that impact mortality to secondary infection. J. Immunol. 186: 195–202 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Daigneault M, Preston JA, Marriott HM, Whyte MK, Dockrell DH. The identification of markers of macrophage differentiation in PMA-stimulated THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. PLoS One 5: e8668 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Doshi N, Mitragotri S. Macrophages recognize size and shape of their targets. PLoS One 5: e10051 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nathan AT, Peterson EA, Chakir J, Wills-Karp M. Innate immune responses of airway epithelium to house dust mite are mediated through β-glucan-dependent pathways. J. Allergy Clin. Immun. 123: 612–618 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pouliot P, Plante I, Raquil MA, Tessier PA, Olivier M. Myeloidrelated proteins rapidly modulate macrophage nitric oxide production during innate immune response. J. Immunol. 181: 3595–3601 (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mak NK, Fung MC, Leung KN, Hapel AJ. Monocytic differentiation of a myelomonocytic leukemic cell (WEHI 3B JCS) is induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cell Immunol. 150: 1–14 (1993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cho HY, Choi EK, Lee SW, Kim KH, Park SJ, Lee CK. All-trans retinoic acid induces TLR-5 expression and cell differentiation and promotes flagellin-mediated cell functions in human THP-1 cells. Immunol. Lett. 136: 97–107 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kang HJ, Ha JM, Kim HS, Lee H, Kurokawa K, Lee BL. The role of phagocytosis in IL-8 production by human monocytes in response to lipoproteins on Staphylococcus aureus. Biochem. Bioph. Res. Co. 406: 449–453 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pascual M, Fernandez-Lizarbe S, Guerri C. Role of TLR4 in ethanol effects on innate and adaptive immune responses in peritoneal macrophages. Immunol. Cell Biol. 89: 716–727 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dong Ki Park
    • 1
    • 2
  • Toshimitsu Hayashi
    • 3
  • Hye-Jin Park
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Bioscience and BiotechnologyKonkuk UniversitySeoulKorea
  2. 2.Cell Activation Research Institute (CARI)Konkuk UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for ResearchUniversity of ToyamaSugitani, ToyamaJapan

Personalised recommendations