Skip to main content

Biochemical characteristics of tea fungus produced during kombucha fermentation

Abstract

Tea fungus is symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts, widely used to produce kombucha tea. Due to the rich biomass in tea fungus, it can be utilized as protein supplement in animal feed. The present study aimed to analyze the biochemical characteristics of tea fungus with the effect of fermentation time. Proximate, amino acids, and elemental analysis of tea fungus produced during kombucha fermentation were studied along with total count of microflora. Results suggested that tea fungus is rich in crude protein, crude fibre, and amino acid lysine. The biochemical characteristics of tea fungus studied were increased throughout the fermentation time.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    Dufresne CJ, Farnworth ER. A review of latest research findings on the health promotion properties of tea. J. Nutr. Biochem. 12: 404–421 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Blanc PJ. Characterization of tea fungus metabolites. Biotechnol. Lett. 18: 139–142 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Sreeramulu G, Zhu Y, Knol W. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 2589–2594 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Murugesan GS, Sathishkumar M, Swaminathan K. Supplementation of waste tea fungal biomass as a dietary ingredient for broiler chicks. Bioresource Technol. 96: 1743–1748 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Jayabalan R, Marimuthu S, Thangaraj P, Sathishkumar M, Binupriya AR, Swaminathan K, Yun SE. Preservation of kombucha tea-Effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties. J. Agr. Food Chem. 56: 9064–9071 (2008b)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Jayabalan R, Marimuthu S, Swaminathan K. Changes in content of organic acid and tea polyphenols during kombucha tea fermentation. Food Chem. 102: 392–398 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Jayabalan R, Subathradevi P, Marimuthu S, Sathishkumar M, Swaminathan K. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation. Food Chem. 109: 227–234 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    AOAC. Official Method of Analysis of AOAC Intl. 15th ed. Method 926.08, 923.03, 962.09, 955.04C, 979.09, 922.06, 954.02. Association of Official Analytical Communities, Arlington, VA, USA (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    VanSoest PJ. Use of detergents in analysis of fibrous feeds III. Study of affects of heating and drying on yield of fiber and lignin in forages J. Assn. Offic. Agr. Chem. 48: 748–785 (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Reiss J. Influence of different sugars on the metabolism of the tea fungus. Z. Lebensm. Unters. For. 198: 258–261 (1994)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Chen C, Liu BY. Changes in major components of tea fungus metabolites during prolonged fermentation. J. Appl. Microbiol. 89: 834–839 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Yamada E, Sgarbieri AVC. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) protein concentrate: Preparation, chemical composition, and nutritional and functional properties. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 3931–3936 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Rumsey GL, Hughes SG, Smith RR, Kinsella JE, Shetty KJ. Digestibility and energy values of intact disrupted and extracts from dried yeast fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 33: 185–193 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Rumsey GL, Kinsella JE, Shetty KJ, Hughes SG. Effect of high dietary concentrations of brewer’s dried yeast on growth performance and liver uricase in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 33: 177–183 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ayanwale BA, Ibrahim MJ, Aberuagba F. Utilisation of dried yeast as a source of lysine in broiler feeds. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 5: 582–584 (2006)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Ayanwale BA, Kpe M, Ayanwale VA. The effect of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the diets of egg laying and egg quality characteristics of pullets. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 5: 759–763 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Choiu PWS, Chiu SW, Chen CR. Value of Aspergillus niger fermentation product as a dietary ingredient for broiler chickens. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 91: 171–182 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Mayser PC, Leitzmann SF, Grunder K. The yeast spectrum of the tea fungus kombucha. Mycoses 38: 289–395 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Gilvarg C, Bloch K. The utilization of acetic acid for amino acid synthesis in yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 163: 339–346 (1951)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Martini AEV, Miller MW, Martini A. Amino acid composition of whole cells of different yeasts. J. Agr. Food Chem. 27: 982–984 (1979)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Bauer PB, Petrushevska TL. Mineral and water soluble vitamin content in the kombucha drink. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 35: 201–205 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Weber CJ. Biobased Packaging Materials for the Food Industry: Status and Perspectives, Available from: http://www.biomatnet.org/publications/f4046fin.pdf Accessed Jan. 10, 2010.

  23. 23.

    Czaja W, Krystynowicz A, Bielecki X, Brown RM. Microbial cellulose-the natural power to heal wounds. Biomaterials 27: 145–151 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Fontana JD, Desouza AM, Fontana CK, Torriani L, Moreschi JC, Gallotti BJ, Desouja SJ, Narcisco GP, Bichara JA, Farah LFX. Acetobacter cellulose pellicle as a temporary skin substitute. Appl. Biochem. Biotech. 24/25: 253–264 (1990)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Machado MD, Santos MS, Gouveia C, Soares HM, Soares EV. Removal of heavy metals using a brewer’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The flocculation as a separation process. Bioresource Technol. 99: 2107–2115 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Machado MD, Janssens S, Soares HM, Soares EV. Removal of heavy metals using a brewar’s yeast strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Advantages of using dead biomass. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106: 1792–1804 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Parvathi K, Nagendran R, Nareshkumar R. Effect of pH on chromium biosorption by chemically treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 66: 675–679 (2007)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sei-Eok Yun.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jayabalan, R., Malini, K., Sathishkumar, M. et al. Biochemical characteristics of tea fungus produced during kombucha fermentation. Food Sci Biotechnol 19, 843–847 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10068-010-0119-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • kombucha
  • tea fungus
  • fermentation
  • cellulosic pellicle
  • proximate analysis