Skip to main content

In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activities in the differentially processed seeds from underutilized legume, Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn


Antioxidant potential and total phenolics content of 70% acetone extracts of the raw and processed seeds of Bauhinia vahlii were evaluated. The extract of raw seeds contained higher levels of total phenolics (30.8 g/100 g) and tannins (19.6 g/100 g) compared to dry heated and soaking followed by autoclaving seed extracts. Extracts were screened for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities using various chemical and in vitro model systems. In all the models, except DPPH radical scavenging activity, the extract from raw seeds manifested the strongest antioxidant activity than that from processed seeds. In β-carotene/linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide scavenging activity, the raw seed extract registered more activity when compared to the standards (butylated hydroxyanisole and α-tocopherol). Whereas, the extract from dry heated seed exhibited higher DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 70.77 μg/mL) than the raw seeds (IC50 74.4 μg/mL). This study has to some extent validated the antioxidant potential of the seeds of B. vahlii.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. 1.

    Caia Y, Luob Q, Sunc M, Corkea H. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer. Life Sci. 74: 2157–2184 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Romani A, Coinu R, Carta S, Pinelli P, Galardi C, Vincieri FF, Franconi F. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of different extracts of Myrtus communis L. Free Radical Res. 38: 97–103 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Ghosal S, Tripathi VK, Chauhan S. Active constituents of Emblica officinalis. Part I. The chemistry and antioxidant effects of two new hydrolysable tannins, emblicanin A and B. Ind. J. Chem. 35B: 941–948 (1996)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Chung KT, Wong TY, Wie CI, Huang YW, Lin Y. Tannins and human health: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. 38: 421–464 (1998)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Singh B, Bhat TK, Singh B. Potential therapeutic applications of some antinutritional plant secondary metabolites. J. Agr. Food Chem. 51: 5579–5597 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Siddhuraju P, Becker K. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of processed cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed extracts. Food Chem. 101: 10–19 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Fernandez-Orozco R, Frias J, Zielinski H, Piskula MK, Kozlowska H, Vidal-Valverde C. Kinetic study of the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity during germination of Vigna radiata cv. emmerald, Glycine max cv. jutro, and Glycine max cv. merit. Food Chem. 111: 622–630 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Parrotta JA. Healing Plants of Peninsular India. CABI Publishing, New York, NY, USA. pp. 323–324 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    NISC (National Institute of Science Communication). The Useful Plants of India. CSIR, New Delhi, India. p. 69 (1986)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Vadivel V, Janardhanan K. Effect of post-harvest treatments on nutritional attributes of the tribal pulse, Bauhinia vahlii W. and A. J. Swamy Bot. Club 17: 57–59 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Rajaram N, Janardhanan K. Chemical composition and nutritional potential of the tribal pulses Bauhinia purpurea, B. racemosa, and B. vahlii. J. Sci. Food Agr. 55: 423–431 (1991)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Manandhar NP. Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, Portland, OR, USA. p. 106 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Siddhuraju R, Becker, K. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic orgins of Drumstick tree (Moringa olifera Lam.) leaves. J. Agr. Food Chem. 51: 2144–2155 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J, Sierra I, Blazquez I, Lambien F, Kuo YH. New functional legume food by germination. Effect on the nutritive value of beans, lentils, and peas. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 215: 472–476 (2002)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Siddhuraju R, Manian S. The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds. Food Chem. 105: 950–958 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: The FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem. 239: 70–76 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Bio. Med. 26: 1231–1237 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetoaminophen, salycilate, and 5-aminosalycilate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 315: 161–169 (1994)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectophotometric quantitative of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal. Biochem. 269: 337–341 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Beauchamp C, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase: Improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Anal. Biochem. 44: 276–277 (1971)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Klein SM, Cohen G, Cederbaum AI. Production of formaldehyde during metabolism of dimethyl sulphoxide by hydroxyl radical generating system. Biochemistry 20: 6006–6012 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Blios MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 26: 1199–1200 (1958)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Taga MS, Miller EE, Pratt DE. Chia seeds as a source of natural lipid antioxidants. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 61: 928–931 (1984)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Roginsky V. Chain breaking antioxidant activity of natural polyphenols as determined during the chain oxidation of methyl linoleate in Triton X-100 micelles. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 414: 261–270 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Meir S, Kanner J, Akiri B, Hadas SP. Determination and involvement of aqueous reducing compounds in oxidative defense systems of various senescing leaves. J. Agr. Food Chem. 43: 1813–1817 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Oktay M, Gulcin I, Kufrevioglu OI. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. LWT. -Food Sci. Technol. 36: 263–271 (2003)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Hippeli S, Elstner EF. Transition metal ion-catalyzed oxygen activation during pathogenic processes. FEBS Lett. 443: 1–7 (1999)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Pazos M, Gallardo JM, Torres JL, Medina I. Activity of grape polyphenols as inhibitors of the oxidation of fish lipids and fish muscle. Food Chem. 92: 547–557 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. pp. 617–783 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Thomas SS, Michaelh HG, Jennifer MA. Antioxidant properties of malt model systems. J. Agr. Food. Chem. 53: 4938–4945 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT. -Food Sci. Technol. 28: 25–30 (1995)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Shon MY, Kim TH, Sung NJ. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of Phellinus baumii (Phellinus of Hymenochaetaceae) extracts. Food Chem. 82: 593–597 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Jayaprakasha GK, Singh RP, Sakariah KK. Antioxidant activity of grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro. Food Chem. 73: 285–290 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sellamuthu Manian.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Sowndhararajan, K., Siddhuraju, P. & Manian, S. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activities in the differentially processed seeds from underutilized legume, Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Food Sci Biotechnol 19, 503–509 (2010).

Download citation


  • Bauhinia vahlii
  • polyphenol
  • antioxidant activity
  • β-carotene
  • 2,2-diphenylpicryl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·)