Compare the intraventricular hemodynamics of 60 females with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 61 healthy female controls, and determine cardiac function changes using vector flow mapping (VFM).
To determine the effect of pulmonary artery pressure changes on left ventricular function, SLE patients were divided into a normal pulmonary artery pressure group (S1, n=24) and an elevated pulmonary artery pressure group (S2, n=36). The energy loss (EL) at each segment of the left ventricular chamber (total, basal, middle, and apical segments) during each period of the cardiac cycle (isovolumic contraction, rapid ejection, rapid filling, reduced filling, atrial contraction) was determined.
The S1 group had significantly more vortices than the control group during the rapid ejection, rapid filling, and atrial contraction periods (p<0.01), and the maximum vortex areas in the S1 and S2 groups were smaller than in the control group during rapid filling and atrial contraction periods (p<0.05). Compared with the control group, the S2 group had greater EL during the systole and diastole periods (p<0.01). EL in the S1 group was significantly greater than in the control group during systole (p<0.01). During the rapid filling period, the EL was positively correlated with septal E′ (r=0.784, p<0.01), and during the atrial contraction period, EL was positively correlated with septal E/e′ (r=0.812, p<0.01) and A (r=0.715, p<0.01).
VFM of patients with SLE can comprehensively, rapidly, and efficiently evaluate changes of myocardial mechanics and intracardiac hemodynamics and provide quantitative analysis of complex intracardiac blood flow.
• Vector flow mapping (VFM) is a new non-invasive ultrasound technique that evaluates changes of myocardial mechanics and intracardiac hemodynamics, and provides quantitative analysis of complex intracardiac blood flow.
• This study showed that vortex and energy loss may provide more sensitive detection of cardiac dysfunction than conventional echocardiographic indexes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
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The datasets generated and analyzed in the present study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
the American College of Rheumatolgy
body surface area
cardiac magnetic resonance
endothelin receptor antagonist
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
echo-particle image velocimetry
estimated glomerular filtration rate
fractional area change
fasting blood glucose
left atrial diameter
left ventricular end-diastolic diameter
left ventricular end-diastolic volume
left ventricular eject fraction
left ventricular end-systolic diameter
pulmonary arterial hypertension
pulmonary artery systolic pressure
phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor
pro-brain natriuretic peptide
right atrial diameter
right ventricular diameter
systemic lupus erythematosus
SLE disease activity index
tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion
tissue Doppler imaging
tricuspid regurgitation velocity
vector flow mapping
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This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 81871359).
This study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethics standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethics standards.
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Wang, Y., Hong, J., Yu, R. et al. Evaluation of left ventricular function by vector flow mapping in females with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol 40, 4049–4060 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-021-05747-y