First-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher risk for the development of RA. In the stages prior to the development of arthritis, nonspecific musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations may occur. The aim of the study is to describe the frequency of rheumatic regional pain syndromes (RRPS) in FDR of RA patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2016 to September 2018. Parents, offspring, and siblings of RA patients completed the Community Oriented Program in the Rheumatic Diseases (COPCORD) questionnaire. Rheumatoid factor (RF) IgG, IgM, and IgA; anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPAs); C-reactive protein (CRP); and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. All subjects with a positive COPCORD (defined by the presence of musculoskeletal pain) were evaluated and classified. Three hundred thirty-five FDRs participated, 75.8% were female, mean age of 44.15 years; 138 (41.2%) were diagnosed with at least one RRPS; 72 (21.5%) had rotator cuff tendinitis, 51 (15.2%) pes anserine bursitis, and 39 (11.6) lateral epicondylitis; RA was diagnosed in 24 (7.16%) subjects, undifferentiated arthritis (UA) in 30 (8.9%) and inflammatory arthralgia (AI) in 104 (31%). We found anti-CCP positivity in 6.8%, RF IgA in 22.3%, RF IgM in 48.6%, and RF IgG in 8.9%. The presence of RRPS was higher in this RA-FDR group compared to general population. Clinical evaluation of this risk group should include screening for RRPS.
• The frequency of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in first-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis was 41%.
• Rotator cuff tendinitis was detected in 21.5%, higher than reported in the Mexican population.
• The presence of RRPS in this risk group could be considered as one of the first manifestations of RA.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Frisell T, Holmqvist M, Kallberg H, Klareskog L, Alfredsson L, Askling J (2013) Familial risks and heritability of rheumatoid arthritis: role of rheumatoid factor/anti-citrullinated protein antibody status, number and type of affected relatives, sex, and age. Arthritis Rheum 65:2773–2782
Smolik I, Robinson DB, Bernstein CN, El-Gabalawy HS (2013) First-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis exhibit high prevalence of joint symptoms. J Rheumatol 40:818–824
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Pelaez-Ballestas I, Rodriguez-Amado J, Sanin LH, Garcia-Garcia C, Garza-Elizondo MA et al (2011) Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in adults from Mexico: a community survey using COPCORD for screening and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria. J Rheumatol Suppl 86:15–20
Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, Funovits J, Felson DT, Bingham CO et al (2010) 2010 rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European league against rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum 62:2569–2581
Walker-Bone K, Byng P, Linaker C, Reading I, Coggon D, Palmer KT, Cooper C (2002) Reliability of the Southampton examination schedule for the diagnosis of upper limb disorders in the general population. Ann Rheum Dis 61:1103–1106
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Canoso JJ (2004) Evidence-based soft tissue rheumatology IV: anserine bursitis. J Clin Rheumatol 10:205–206
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Canoso JJ (2004) Evidence-based soft tissue rheumatology: epicondylitis and hand stenosing tendinopathy. J Clin Rheumatol 10:33–40
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Canoso JJ (2004) Evidence-based soft tissue rheumatology: III: trochanteric bursitis. J Clin Rheumatol 10:123–124
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Canoso JJ (2004) Evidence-based soft tissue rheumatology. V: plantar talalgia. J Clin Rheumatol 10:259–262
Cardiel MH, Rojas-Serrano J (2002) Community based study to estimate prevalence, burden of illness and help seeking behavior in rheumatic diseases in Mexico City. A COPCORD study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 20:617–624
Pelaez-Ballestas I, Sanin LH, Moreno-Montoya J, Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Burgos-Vargas R, Garza-Elizondo M et al (2011) Epidemiology of the rheumatic diseases in Mexico. A study of 5 regions based on the COPCORD methodology. J Rheumatol Suppl 86:3–8
Gerlag DM, Raza K, van Baarsen LG, Brouwer E, Buckley CD, Burmester GR, Gabay C, Catrina AI, Cope AP, Cornelis F, Dahlqvist SR, Emery P, Eyre S, Finckh A, Gay S, Hazes JM, van der Helm-van Mil A, Huizinga TW, Klareskog L, Kvien TK, Lewis C, Machold KP, Rönnelid J, van Schaardenburg D, Schett G, Smolen JS, Thomas S, Worthington J, Tak PP (2012) EULAR recommendations for terminology and research in individuals at risk of rheumatoid arthritis: report from the Study Group for Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 71:638–641
Alvarez-Nemegyei J, Pelaez-Ballestas I, Goni M, Julian-Santiago F, Garcia-Garcia C, Quintana R et al (2016) Prevalence of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in Latin-American indigenous groups: a census study based on COPCORD methodology and syndrome-specific diagnostic criteria. Clin Rheumatol 35(Suppl 1):63–70
Guevara-Pacheco S, Feican-Alvarado A, Sanin LH, Vintimilla-Ugalde J, Vintimilla-Moscoso F, Delgado-Pauta J et al (2016) Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and rheumatic diseases in Cuenca, Ecuador: a WHO-ILAR COPCORD study. Rheumatol Int 36:1195–1204
Gamboa-Cárdenas R, Medina M, Acevedo E, Pastor C, Cucho M, Gutiérrez VC (2009) [Prevalence of rheumatological diseases and disability in a marginal urban community: results of the first COPCORD study in Peru]. [ article in Spanish]. Rev peru reumatol 15:40–46 http://www.socreuma.org.pe/images/publicaciones/copcord.pdf. Accessed Feb 2016
Sandoughi M, Zakeri Z, Tehrani Banihashemi A, Davatchi F, Narouie B, Shikhzadeh A, Mohammadi M, Jahantigh M, Shakiba M, Moulaei NA, Yousefi S, Rezazehi B, Shirzaei Sani E, Emamdadi A, Hoseynian M, Masoodian S, Shahbakhsh S (2013) Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in southeastern Iran: a WHO-ILAR COPCORD study (stage 1, urban study). Int J Rheum Dis 16:509–517
Bergstra SA, Chopra A, Saluja M, Vega-Morales D, Govind N, Huizinga TWJ, van der Helm-van Mil A (2017) Evaluation of the joint distribution at disease presentation of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a large study across continents. RMD Open 3(2):e000568
Kolfenbach JR, Deane KD, Derber LA, O'Donnell C, Weisman MH, Buckner JH, Gersuk VH, Wei S, Mikuls TR, O'Dell J, Gregersen PK, Keating RM, Norris JM, Holers VM (2009) A prospective approach to investigating the natural history of preclinical rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using first-degree relatives of probands with RA. Arthritis Rheum 61:1735–1742
Ramos-Remus C, Castillo-Ortiz JD, Aguilar-Lozano L, Padilla-Ibarra J, Sandoval-Castro C, Vargas-Serafin CO et al (2015) Autoantibodies in prediction of the development of rheumatoid arthritis among healthy relatives of patients with the disease. Arthritis Rheumatol 67:2837–2844
van Steenbergen HW, Aletaha D, Beaart-van de Voorde LJ, Brouwer E, Codreanu C, Combe B et al (2017) EULAR definition of arthralgia suspicious for progression to rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 76:491–496
The authors would like to thank collaborators Jacqueline Rodríguez-Amado, Wendy Orzúa-de la Fuente, Ana Sofía Leal-Bramasco, César Vidal Elizondo-Solís, Juan Manuel Cantú-Martínez, Jorge Hermosillo-Villafranca, Jorge Rodríguez-Olivo, Elías Adán Godoy-Salinas, Karla A. Esquivel-Alvizu, Cassandra M. Skinner-Taylor, Diana Elsa Flores-Alvarado, Janett Carmen Riega-Torres, Andrés Mendiola-Jiménez, and Karen Martínez-Ojeda.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Pérez-Barbosa, L., Garza-Elizondo, M.A., Vega-Morales, D. et al. High frequency of rheumatic regional pain syndromes in first-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 39, 3303–3307 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05029-z
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Shoulder pain