Dermatomyositis (DM) with autoantibody against melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 (MDA5) is characterized by elevated risk of rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) with a potentially fatal course. Pneumomediastinum (PNM) is a common pulmonary manifestation which accompanies ILD. However, the clinical features of the patients with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive DM who develop PNM remain unclear.
We retrospectively examined 31 patients with DM having anti-MDA5 antibody and compared the clinical features between patients with PNM (PMN(+)) (n = 11) and those without (PNM(−) (n = 20). In addition, we evaluated the treatment-related prognoses in PNM(+) group.
CT score (total ground-glass opacity (GGO) score, P = 0.02; total fibrosis score, P = 0.02) before treatment, and mortality (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in PNM(+) group. The cumulative survival rate as assessed by Kaplan–Meier method was significantly lower for the PNM(+) group (P = 0.02). Among 11 PMN(+) patients, 9 patients (9/11, 81.8%) underwent intensive immunosuppression therapy for RP-ILD, and 5 patients (5/11, 45.5%) did not respond to it and died from the respiratory failure. At the time of diagnosis of PNM, nonsurvivors had worse liver function (ALT, P = 0.03; LDH, P = 0.01), worse respiratory status (A-aDO2, P = 0.01), and worse CT score (total GGO score, P < 0.01).
A subgroup of patients with DM having anti-MDA5 antibody complicated by PNM as well as RP-ILD did respond to intensive immunosuppression therapy. Initial aggressive immunosuppressive therapy should be considered for these patients.
• This study clearly demonstrate the presence of PNM was associated with elevated risk of death due to respiratory failure from RP-ILD among patients with DM having circulating anti-MDA5-antibody.
•This study demonstrate evaluation of CT image may be helpful to find patients with better response to the intense immunosuppression therapy for the patients with DM having circulating anti-MDA5-antibody and PNM.
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This study was approved by institutional review board of Gunma University. This study was conducted by the principles of the Declaration ofHelsinki.
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Yamaguchi, K., Yamaguchi, A., Itai, M. et al. Clinical features of patients with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 antibody-positive dermatomyositis complicated by spontaneous pneumomediastinum. Clin Rheumatol 38, 3443–3450 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04729-5
- Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibodies
- Rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease