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From autoinflammation to autoimmunity: old and recent findings

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Abstract

Autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory diseases have a number of similar etiopathogenetic and clinical characteristics, including genetic predisposition and recurrent systemic inflammatory flares. The first phase of ADs involves innate immunity: by means of TLRs, autoantigen presentation, B and T cell recruitment and autoantibody synthesis. The second phase involves adaptive immunity, a self-sustaining process in which immune complexes containing nucleic acids and autoantibodies activate self-directed inflammation. The link between autoimmunity and autoinflammation is IL-1ß, which is crucial in connecting the innate immune response due to NLR activation and the adaptive immune responses of T and B cells. In conclusion, although ADs are still considered adaptive immunity-mediated disorders, there is increasing evidence that innate immunity and inflammasomes are also involved. The aim of this review is to highlight the link between the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms involved in autoimmune diseases.

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Caso, F., Costa, L., Nucera, V. et al. From autoinflammation to autoimmunity: old and recent findings. Clin Rheumatol 37, 2305–2321 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-018-4209-9

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