Vascular antiphospholipid syndrome (VAPS) and obstetric (OAPS) are different entities because some patients only develop thrombosis (without recurrent pregnancy losses) and vice versa. Only two articles have reported that low 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, VD3) levels were not correlated with the presence of conventional antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL Abs: anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-beta2glycoprotein I (aβ2gpI), and lupus anticoagulant (LA)), but no article analyzed the association of VD3 and anti-annexin A5 (aanxA5) Abs. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between VD3, multiple positivity of conventional aPL and aanxA5 Abs levels only in female OAPS vs. VAPS. Our study included 62 consecutive female PAPS patients. Concentrations of Abs were measured by ELISA, while VD3 levels were determined by immunochemiluminescence. Only 10/62 (16.13%) had sufficient (≥ 30 ng/ml) VD3 levels, while 48/62 (77.42%) and 4/62 (6.45%) had insufficiency and VD3 deficiency, respectively. Statistically significant VD3 deficiency was noticed in VAPS (vs. OAPS, P = 0.013). A negative correlation between VD3 levels and the age of patients was noticed (r = − 0.493, P = 0.032) only in VAPS subgroup. Multiple positivity of aPL and aanxA5 Abs was not associated with VD3 deficiency. Newly emerging aPL Abs, such as aanxA5 Abs, or their combinations with classical aPL Abs are not associated with VD3 deficiency in neither OAPS nor VAPS patients. Due to its immunomodulatory roles in B-Ly homeostasis, supplementation with VD3 should be considered in APS, at least in subgroup with severe form of the disease, i.e., VAPS.
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We would like to thank all patients who participated in this study and our colleagues from numerous clinics in Serbia.
The present work was supported by the Ministry of Science, Education and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia on the basis of contract No. 175036. In addition, our work was supported by the research grant numbers 175041 and TR 32040 (for 2011–2018), issued by the Ministry of Science of the Republic of Serbia.
The funding source had no involvement in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit this article for publication.
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in our study were in accordance with Helsinki declaration (and its later amendments) and with the ethical standards of the institutional ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
None of the authors has any potential financial conflict of interest related to this manuscript. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
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