Rheumatic diseases in HIV-infected patients in the post-antiretroviral therapy era: a tertiary care center experience

  • Konstantinos Parperis
  • Yasir Abdulqader
  • Robert Myers
  • Bikash Bhattarai
  • Muhsen Al-Ani
Original Article


The aim of the study was to calculate the proportion of rheumatic diseases in HIV patients who were receiving ART and to identify association of the HIV medications with the development of rheumatologic diseases. We conducted a retrospective chart review during the period of 2010 to 2016. We identified 2996 patients as having chronic HIV infection and on ART, and we collected data regarding patient’s demographic characteristics, comorbidities, CD 4 count, HIV viral load, and ART. One hundred thirteen out of 2996 HIV patients (3.8%) were found to have a rheumatic condition (mean age of 48.6 years, 83% male). The most frequent musculoskeletal condition was avascular necrosis (AVN) in 39 (1.3%), and the most frequent autoimmune condition was psoriasis in 28 patients (1%). Compared with the 200 HIV patients without any diagnosis of rheumatic disease were the older patients with rheumatic conditions (mean age of 48.9 vs. 42.7 years; p < 0.01), and had a longer duration of HIV infection (mean duration of 15.5 vs. 10.3 years; p < 0.01). The odds of rheumatic conditions were 1.7 times higher in males (relative to females). Those who received integrase inhibitors were more likely (63.3%) to develop rheumatologic manifestations relative to those who never received integrase inhibitors (21.6%; p < 0.01). The proportion of rheumatic diseases in HIV patients appears to be comparable to the prevalence in the US population. Older age, longer duration of HIV infection, and the use of ART regimens containing integrase inhibitors, appear to increase the risk of developing a rheumatic condition.


Antiretroviral therapy Avascular necrosis HIV Psoriasis Rheumatic diseases 



The authors thank Napatkamon Ayutyanont for support with statistical analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards



Ethical standards

The institutional review board and the ethics committee of the Maricopa Integrated Health System approved the study before the collection of data (approval number 2015-126). Due to retrospective nature of the study no informed consent was obtained.


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Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos Parperis
    • 1
  • Yasir Abdulqader
    • 1
  • Robert Myers
    • 1
  • Bikash Bhattarai
    • 1
  • Muhsen Al-Ani
    • 2
  1. 1.Maricopa Integrated Health System and University of Arizona College of MedicinePhoenixUSA
  2. 2.University of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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