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Efficacy and safety profile of anti-interleukin-1 treatment in Behçet’s disease: a multicenter retrospective study

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Growing data have provided encouraging results on the use of interleukin (IL)-1 inhibitors in Behçet’s disease (BD). This study was aimed at reporting the largest experience with anti-IL-1 agents in BD patients. We evaluated 30 BD patients receiving treatment with anti-IL-1 agents. The primary aims of the study were to evaluate the efficacy of anakinra (ANA) and canakinumab (CAN) in a cohort of BD. The secondary aims were to evaluate the overall safety profile of the treatments, explore the timing of response to therapy and any adjustment of dosage and frequency of drugs studied, and investigate predictive factors of response to therapy. The frequency of first line therapy was 90 % with ANA and 10 % with CAN. The overall number of subjects in complete remission after 12 months of therapy with anti-IL-1 drugs was 13: 6 maintained the initial therapy regimen, 1 maintained the same initial anti-IL-1 drug with further therapeutic adjustments, and the remaining 6 shifted from ANA to CAN. Among them, 3 used CAN for at least 12 months without therapeutic adjustments, 1 had therapeutic adjustments, and 3 had an overall history of a 12-month complete remission. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 15 % patients who received ANA, represented in all cases by local cutaneous reactions, while no AE were observed in patients who received CAN; we did not observe any serious AEs (SAEs) during the follow-up period. Our data have confirmed that the use of anti-IL-1β drugs is efficacious and safe with an overall acceptable retention on treatment.

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Correspondence to Luca Cantarini.

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This is from the Autoinflammatory Diseases’ Working Group of the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR).

Giacomo Emmi and Rosaria Talarico contributed equally to this work.

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Emmi, G., Talarico, R., Lopalco, G. et al. Efficacy and safety profile of anti-interleukin-1 treatment in Behçet’s disease: a multicenter retrospective study. Clin Rheumatol 35, 1281–1286 (2016).

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