Clinical Rheumatology

, Volume 34, Issue 7, pp 1157–1163 | Cite as

Teaching of clinical anatomy in rheumatology: a review of methodologies

  • Karina D. Torralba
  • Pablo Villaseñor-Ovies
  • Christine M. Evelyn
  • R. Michelle Koolaee
  • Robert A. KalishEmail author
Review Article


Clinical anatomy may be defined as anatomy that is applied to the care of the patient. It is the foundation of a well-informed physical examination that is so important in rheumatologic practice. Unfortunately, there is both documented and observed evidence of a significant deficiency in the teaching and performance of a competent musculoskeletal examination at multiple levels of medical education including in rheumatology trainees. At the Annual Meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Boston, MA, that took place in November 2014, a Clinical Anatomy Study Group met to share techniques of teaching clinical anatomy to rheumatology fellows, residents, and students. Techniques that were reviewed included traditional anatomic diagrams, hands-on cross-examination, cadaver study, and musculoskeletal ultrasound. The proceedings of the Study Group section are described in this review.


Clinical anatomy Medical education Musculoskeletal ultrasound Physical examination 





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Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karina D. Torralba
    • 1
  • Pablo Villaseñor-Ovies
    • 2
  • Christine M. Evelyn
    • 3
  • R. Michelle Koolaee
    • 3
  • Robert A. Kalish
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Rheumatology, Department of MedicineLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  2. 2.Centro de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de MedicinaUniversidad Autónoma de Baja CaliforniaTijuanaMexico
  3. 3.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical CenterTufts University School of MedicineBostonUSA

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