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Persistent hypertension in lupus nephritis and the associated risk factors

Abstract

Arterial hypertension (HPT) burden up to two third of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) risk. We aim to determine the prevalence of HPT among lupus nephritis (LN) patients who were in complete remission (CR) for a minimum of 6 months, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of >60 mL/min/1.73 m2. This is a cross-sectional study of 64 LN patients who attended Nephrology/SLE Clinic at The National University of Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Persistent hypertension (blood pressure (BP) ≥140/90 mmHg for at least two occasions), CR for a minimum of 6 months and eGFR of >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the demographic and disease characteristics associated with HPT. Thirty-four of them (53.1 %) were hypertensive. Persistent HPT was associated with disease duration, acute kidney injury and high BP at the onset of LN, longer duration interval to achieve CR, number of relapses and cyclosporine A (CyA) use. There were no associations between histological classes, nephrotic range proteinuria, body mass index and waist circumference with HPT. Factors independently associated with HPT were disease duration OR 1.06 [95 %CI (0.91–1.24)], longer duration interval to achieve CR OR 1.104 [95 %CI (1.02–1.19)], number of relapses OR 2.53 [95 % CI (1.01–6.3)] and CyA use OR 5.3 [95 % CI (1.14–23.9)]. The prevalence of HPT among LN is high despite in remission. Aggressive treatment is important to achieve early CR and to prevent relapses.

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Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr Raymond Azman Ali, Director and Dean National University of Malaysia Medical Centre.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors had any conflict of interest, including specific financial interests, relationships, and/or affiliations relevant to the subject matter or materials included in this manuscript.

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This research received no grant support.

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Correspondence to Ruslinda Mustafar.

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Shaharir, S.S., Mustafar, R., Mohd, R. et al. Persistent hypertension in lupus nephritis and the associated risk factors. Clin Rheumatol 34, 93–97 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-014-2802-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-014-2802-0

Keywords

  • Cyclosporine A
  • Hypertension
  • Lupus nephritis
  • Remission
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus