Impacts of the petrophysical and diagenetic aspects on the geomechanical properties of the dolomitic sequence of Gebel El-Halal, Sinai, Egypt

Original Paper
  • 238 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the controlling effect of the mineral composition, the diagenetic history and the petrophysical properties on the geomechanical properties and durability of the dolomitic El-Halal Formation in its type section in North Sinai as well as its economic potential for construction purposes. The petrographic studies include descriptions of both the mineral composition and diagenetic processes, while the petrophysical studies measure the density, porosity, permeability and true formation resistivity factor. In addition, some geomechanical laboratory tests were conducted, including the petrographic description of the mineral composition and diagenetic processes, as well as the Schmidt Hammer number (SHV), point load index (IS50), uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), and ultrasonic longitudinal wave velocity measurements. Scanning electron microscopy was used to help in pore-type description (intergranular, vuggy, etc.). Based on lithologic changes and mineral composition, the El-Halal Formation can be subdivided into three informal members: (1) lower dolomitic limestone, (2) middle sandy dolostone and (3) upper dolostone member. Petrographically, the sequence consists of three dominant microfacies: (1) dolomitic mudstone microfacies (dolomitic micrite to dolomicrite), (2) dolowackestone (clayey to sandy dolomicrite), and (3) dolomudstone microfacies (dolosparite). The most diagnostic diagenetic processes are dolomitization, cementation by calcite, aggrading neomorphism and the creation of authigenic illite. In the study area, dolomitization has affected almost all the Cenomanian succession. The SHV, IS50, and UCS values of the samples indicate high-strength rocks. The present study indicates the dependence of the geomechanical properties on the petrophysical properties and the mineral composition of the studied rocks. Modeling the properties indicates a reliable correlation between the different parameters which can be applied for predicting and characterizing the dolomitic El-Halal Formation elsewhere. The results of the present investigation are useful for studying the geomechanical and petrophysical properties of similar dolomitic sequences and in ranking its potential as construction materials.

Keywords

Lithology Petrophysical and geomechanical properties El-halal formation 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the reviewers for their constructive comments that improved and reconstructed the manuscript. Thanks are also due to the editors, Prof. Dr. Martin G. Culshaw and Prof Dr. Philip Paige-Green, whose patience and insightful suggestions have led to a concise revised version.

References

  1. Abd El Aal A, Nabawy BS (2017) Implications of increasing the ferruginous cement on the physical and mechanical properties of the Cambro-Ordovician Wajid sandstone in Southwest Saudi Arabia: applications for construction purposes. Bull Eng Geol Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-017-1115-3
  2. Abdullatif OM (2009) Geomechanical properties and rock mass quality of the carbonate Rus formation, Dammam dome, Saudi Arabia. Arab J Sci Eng 35:173–197Google Scholar
  3. Ahr WM (2005) Carbonate Reservoir Geology. Texas A&M University. class notes, College StationGoogle Scholar
  4. Aly MF, Abdel-Gawad GI, Gabir MA (2005) Upper most Albian-Cenomanian ammonites from North Sinai. Egypt Egy J Paleont 5:347–385Google Scholar
  5. Ameen MS, Brian GD, Somerville JM (2009) Predicting rock mechanical properties of carbonates from wireline logs (a case study: Arab-D reservoir, Ghawar field, Saudi Arabia). Mar Pet Geol 26:430–444Google Scholar
  6. American society for testing and materials (ASTM) (1984) Soil and rock, building stones: Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 4.08Google Scholar
  7. Anon (1979) Classification of rocks and soils for engineering geological mapping, part 1-rock and soil materials. Rep Comm Eng Geol Mapp Bull Int Asso Eng Geol 19:364–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arman H, Hashem W, El Tokhi M, Abdelghany O, El Saiy A (2014) Petrographical and geomechanical properties of the lower Oligocene limestones from al Ain City, United Arab Emirates. Arab J Sci Eng 39(1):261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benavente D, Garcia del Cura MA, Fort R, Ordóñez S (2004) Durability estimation of porous building stones from pore structure and strength. Eng Geol 74:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benson DJ (1985) Diagenetic controls on reservoir development and quality, Smackover Formation of southwest Alabama. Gulf Coast Assoc Geol Soc Trans 35:317–326Google Scholar
  11. Biju-Duval B, Letouzey J, Montadert L (1979) Variety of margins and deep basins in the Mediterranean: in geological and geophysical investigations of continental margins. AAPG Bull M 29:293–317Google Scholar
  12. Boadu FK (1997) Fractured rock mass characterization parameters and seismic properties: analytical studies. J Appl Geophys 36:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Broch EM, Franklin JA (1972) The point load strength test. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 9:669–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chang C, Zoback M, Khaksar A (2006) Empirical relations between rock strength and physical properties in sedimentary rocks. J Pet Sci Eng 51:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Çobanoğlu I, Çelik SB (2008) Estimation of uniaxial compressive strength from point load strength, Schmidt hardness and P-wave velocity. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67(4):491–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fitzner B, Snethlage R (1982) Zum EinfluB der Porenradienverti. Eilung auf das Verwitterungsverhalten ausgewa¨hlter Sandsteine. Bautenschult Bausan 3(82):97–102Google Scholar
  17. Genedi A (1998) Formation of the upper cretaceous cherts in northeastern Sinai, Egypt. J Afr Earth Sci 26(2):297–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hudson JA, Jones ETW, New BM (1980) P-wave velocity measurements in a machine bored chalk tunnel. Q J Eng Geol 13:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ISRM (1981) In: E.T. Brown (ed.) Rock characterization testing and monitoring-ISRM suggested methods. Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Kahraman S, Yeken T (2008) Determination of physical properties of carbonate rocks from P-wave velocity. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67:277–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kahraman S, Soylemez M, Fener M (2008) Determination of fracture depth of rock blocks from P-wave velocity. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67(1):11–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Karpuz C, Pasamehmetoglu AG (1997) Field characterization of weathered Ankara andesites. Eng Geol 46:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kelsall PC, Watters R, Franzone JG (1986) Engineering characterization of fissured, weathered dolerite and vesicular basalt. Proc. 27th U.S. Symposium 77–84Google Scholar
  24. Klinkenberg LJ (1941) The permeability of porous media to liquids and gases, in drilling and production practice 2. Am Petrol Ins:200–213Google Scholar
  25. Kora M, Shahin A, Semiet A (1994) Biostratigraphy and paleoecology of some Cenomanian successions in west Central Sinai, Egypt. Neues Jahrb Geol Paläontol Mh H 10:597–617Google Scholar
  26. Kuşcu M, Yıldız A, Bağcı M (2003) Investigation of Ağın andesite as a building stone (İscehisar-Afyon, W-Turkey). International symposium on industrial minerals and building stones, İstanbul, pp 243–253Google Scholar
  27. Larsen B, Gudmundsson A, Grunnaleite I, Sælen G (2010) Effects of sedimentary interfaces on fracture pattern, linkage, and cluster. Mar Pet Geol 27:1531–1550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Miller RP (1965) Engineering classification and index properties for intact rocks. PhD thesis, University of IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  29. Moustafa AR, Khalil MH (1990) Structural characteristics and tectonic evolution of north Sinai fold belts. In: Said R (ed.) The geology of Egypt. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 381–389Google Scholar
  30. Nabawy BS (2013) Impacts of dolomitization on the petrophysical properties of the Cenomanian el-halal formation, North Sinai, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 6(2):359–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nabawy BS (2014) Estimating porosity and permeability using digital image analysis (DIA) technique for highly porous sandstones. Arab J Geosci 7(3):889–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nabawy BS (2015) Impacts of the pore- and petro-fabrics on porosity exponent and lithology factor of Archie’s equation for carbonate rocks. J Afr Earth Sci 108:101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nabawy BS, Al-Azazi NAS (2015) Reservoir zonation and discrimination using the routine core analyses data: the upper Jurassic Sab’atayn sandstones as a case study, Sab’atayn basin, Yemen. Arab J Geosci 8(8):5511–5530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nabawy BS, Barakat MK (2017) Formation evaluation using conventional and special core analyses: Belayim formation as a case study, gulf of Suez, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 10:25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nabawy BS, Sediek KN, Nafee SA (2015) Pore fabric assignment using electrical conductivity of some Albian–Cenomanian sequences in north Eastern Desert, Egypt. Arab J Geosci 8(8):5601–5615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nabway BS, Kassab MA (2014) Porosity-reducing and porosity-enhancing diagenetic factors for some carbonate microfacies: a guide for petrophysical facies discrimination. Arab J Geosci 7(11):4523–4539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shahin A (2001) Contribution to the knowledge of the early cretaceous foraminiferal assemblages, their paleoecology and paleogeography in the northern Sinai, Egypt. NJ Geol Palaeont 221:397–440Google Scholar
  38. Shalabi FI, Cording EJ, Al-Hattamleb OH (2007) Estimation of rock engineering properties using hardness tests. Eng Geol 90:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sharma PK, Singh TN (2008) A correlation between P-wave velocity, impact strength index, slake durability index and uniaxial compressive strength. Bull Eng Geol Environ 67:17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Singh YR, Devi CO, Abujam SS, Chetia D (2012a) Study on the ethnomedicinal system of Manipur. Int J Pharm Biol Arch 3(3):587–591Google Scholar
  41. Singh E, Sharma S, Dwivedi J, Sharma S (2012b) Diversified potentials of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi): an exhaustive survey. J Nat Prod Plant Res 2:39–48Google Scholar
  42. Sun Y, Jiang J, Kantarelis E, Xu J, Li L, Zhao S, Yang W (2012) Development of a bimetallic dolomite based tar cracking catalyst. Catal Commun 20:36–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Teme SC, Edet AE (1986) Strength characteristics of some Nigerian limestone implications for the construction industry. In: Proc regional seminar in earth sciences, 1st ANSTI-UNESCO earth sciences subnetwork, Dakar 8–17Google Scholar
  44. Turk N, Dearman WR (1987) Assessment of grouting efficiency in a rock mass in terms of seismic velocities. Bull Int Assoc Eng Geol 36:101–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wacey D, Wright D, Boyce A (2007) A stable isotope study of microbial dolomite formation in the Coorong region, South Australia. Chem Geol 244:155–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walsh JB, Brace WF (1984) The effect of pressure on porosity and the transport properties of rock. J Geophy Res 89(Bll):9425–9431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wanas HA (2008) Cenomanian rocks in the Sinai peninsula, Northeast Egypt: facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy. J Afr Earth Sci 52:125–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zico A, Darwish M, Eweda S (1993) Late cretaceous-early tertiary stratigraphy of the themed area, east Central Sinai, Egypt. Neues Jahrbruch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Monatshefte 3:135–149Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geophysical SciencesNational Research CentreCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Geology Department, Faculty of ScienceAl Azhar UniversityAssiutEgypt
  3. 3.Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringNajran UniversityNajranSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations