Characteristics of aggregates used in road construction in Portugal, complying with the requirements of European Conformity (CE marking)
- 92 Downloads
In the context of European Conformity (CE marking), an inventory on the aggregates used in road construction in Portugal, encompassing 145 producers (68%) and 228 production centres (79%) was carried out, aiming to support the normalisation of activity for aggregates. A broad and representative characterisation of the geometric, physical, mechanical, chemical, and weathering properties of the aggregates was obtained. A total of 106 aggregate sizes allowed the delineation of two predominant dimensional combinations. Aggregates showed dependence on the lithological type, especially with respect to geometrical, physical, and mechanical properties. More than 30% of the all-in aggregates did not satisfy the sand equivalent category SE50 and the methylene-blue category MB2.5, requiring great care in the establishment of specifications. For high levels of performance, in terms of mechanical resistance, the percentage of aggregates satisfying the Los Angeles category LA30 and the polished stone value category PSV50 was quite low. Comparisons with other countries were not possible as no similar data compilation or inventory was found. The present research aims at improving the application of European aggregate standards and, hopefully, at triggering similar work in other countries, especially European ones, in order to contribute to new international standards or to the revision of those standards currently in force.
KeywordsAggregate Inventory of characteristics CE marking Portugal
The authors thank the companies that participated in the inquiry, as well as the Notified Bodies, APCER (Portuguese Association for Certification), BVQI (Bureau Veritas Quality International), CERTIF (Association for Certification), EIC (International Company for Certification), and SGS (Société Générale de Surveillance), that helped to build the lists of certified companies under the CE marking for aggregates. We would like to thank ANIET (National Association for Extractive and Manufacturing Industry) for the support given in the contact with its members. We thank InIR (Institute of Road Infrastructures), and IP (Infrastructures of Portugal), for making data available.
Acknowledgements are also due to Joana Margarida Pina, Tania Almeida, and Carla Rocha, students of the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Coimbra, who collaborated in the data compilation.
Compliance with ethical standards
The financial support of FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, I.P.), through Portuguese funds, in the research project UID/Multi/00073/2013 of the Geosciences Center of the University of Coimbra is acknowledged. The Initiation to Research grants (BII/FCTUC/C2008/CGeo), granted to Joana Pina and Carla Rocha by the Geosciences Centre, are acknowledged.
- Branco FC, Martins A, Silva M, Isidoro M, Baptista P, Roliz R, Correia S, Castro V (2006) Impacto dos novos métodos de ensaio na especificação dos agregados. Jornadas de Normalização do ONS/EP. (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Branco FC, Quinta-Ferreira M (2009) Levantamento das características dos agregados produzidos em Portugal. InIR – Instituto de Infra-Estruturas Rodoviárias, IP. 1–90. http://www.inir.pt/portal/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=jAkmkDD8CP0%3D&tabid=116&mid=487&language=pt-PT. Acessed 19 May 2016. (In Portuguese)
- Branco FC, Quinta-Ferreira M (2011) Levantamento das características dos agregados produzidos em Portugal. Proc. 6° Cong. Luso-Moçambicano de Engenharia. (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Branco FC, Quinta-Ferreira M, Fernandes I (2015) Inquiry of Aggregates Produced In Portugal. Proc. 15th Int. Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM2015, Albena, Bulgaria. Book 1. doi: 10.5593/SGEM2015/B12/S2.052
- EEC (1989) Council Directive 89/106/EEC of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to construction products. OJ No L 40 of 11 February 1989Google Scholar
- EEC (2011) Regulation (EU) No. 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2011 laying down harmonised conditions for the marketing of construction products and repealing Council Directive 89/106/EEC, Official Journal of the European Union, L88, p. 39Google Scholar
- Freire AC, Antunes ML (2007) Caracterização de Agregados Produzidos em Portugal de Acordo com as Referências Normativas EN 13043 e EN 13242. Jornadas de Normalização do ONS/EP. (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Kaliampakos D, Benardos A (1999) Sustainable aggregate quarrying in Athens (Greece): problems and solutions. Proceedings Global Conference on Environmental Control in Mining and Metallurgy, China, 24–27 May, GME: 108–114Google Scholar
- UEPG (European Aggregates Association, Union Européenne des Producteurs de Granulats), Annual Review 2014–2015. http://www.uepg.eu/uploads/Modules/MediaRoom/uepg-ar2014-2015_210x297mm_v18_pbp_small.pdf. Acessed 22 Sept 2016
- EN 12620:2002+A1:2008 (2008) Aggregates for concrete. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13043:2002 (2002) Aggregates for bituminous mixtures. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13055-1:2002 (2002) Lightweight aggregates; Part 1: Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13055-2:2004 (2004) Lightweight aggregates: Part 2: Lightweight aggregates for bituminous mixtures and surface treatments and for unbound and bound applications. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13139:2002/AC:2004 (2004) Aggregates for mortar. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13242:2002+A1:2007 (2007) Aggregates for unbound and hydraulically bound materials for use in civil engineering work and road construction. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13383-1:2002/AC:2004 (2004) Armourstone; Part 1: Specification. CENGoogle Scholar
- EN 13450:2002/AC:2004 (2004) Aggregates for railway ballast. CENGoogle Scholar