Relationships between the drilling rate index and physicomechanical rock properties

  • Mehmet CapikEmail author
  • Ali Osman Yilmaz
  • Serdar Yasar
Original Paper


The drilling rate index (DRI) is an important parameter that influences the drillability of rocks. It can easily be used when estimating the economics of any excavation operation. Therefore, in the current study, an attempt was made to investigate the rock properties that govern the DRI. The relationships between the DRI and some physicomechanical rock properties were investigated based on data obtained from experimental work and in situ studies performed in different tunnels. Regression analysis was employed to develop models for estimating the DRI based on physicomechanical rock properties. The derived models were verified based on the behavior of the determination coefficient, the t test, and the F test. The study showed that the DRI decreases with increasing uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, Brazilian tensile strength, and Schmidt rebound hardness. It was also concluded that the DRI increases with increasing apparent porosity and void ratio. Additionally, modeling results revealed that the proposed models can be successfully used as tools to forecast the DRI.


Drilling rate index Physicomechanical rock properties Regression analysis Modeling 



The authors would like to thank the Scientific Research Projects Unit of Karadeniz Technical University for financial support (project number: 8683). The authors also greatly appreciate the permission given by the NAS-YSE and AS-YOL Construction Company to collect data in the tunnels. Most of the DRI tests were carried out in Bulent Ecevit University with the generous assistance of Assoc. Prof. Dr. Olgay Yarali and his crew. In addition, the authors wish to thank Asst. Prof. Gokhan Aydin for his suggestions for improving the quality of the manuscript. Finally, the authors gratefully acknowledge Prof. Bjorn Nilsen, Prof. Amund Bruland, and Filip Dahl.


  1. Akun ME, Karpuz C (2005) Drillability studies of surface-set diamond drilling in Zonguldak Region sandstones from Turkey. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 42:473–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. ASTM (2005) Standard test method for determination of rock hardness by rebound hammer method, D873-05. American Standards for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM (2010a) Standard test method for compressive strength and elastic moduli of intact rock core specimens under varying states of stress and temperatures, D7012-10. American Standards for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  4. ASTM (2010b) Standard test methods for apparent porosity, water absorption, apparent specific gravity, and bulk density of burned refractory brick and shapes by boiling water, C20-00. American Standards for Testing and Materials, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  5. Aydin G (2014) Modeling of energy consumption based on economic and demographic factors: the case of Turkey with projections. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 35:382–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aydin G, Karakurt I, Aydiner K (2013a) Investigation of the surface roughness of rocks sawn by diamond sawblades. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 61:171–182Google Scholar
  7. Aydin G, Karakurt I, Aydiner K (2013b) Wear performance of saw blades in processing of granitic rocks and development of models for wear estimation. Rock Mech Rock Eng 46(6):1559–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berman ME, Wang J (2011) Essential statistics for public managers and policy analysts, 3rd edn. CQ, Washington, DC, p 321Google Scholar
  9. Bilgin N, Kahraman S (2003) Drillability prediction in rotary blast hole drilling. In: 18th Int Mining Congr Exhib Turkey (IMCET 2003), Antalya, Turkey, 10–13 June 2003, pp 177–182Google Scholar
  10. Bruland A (1998) Hard rock tunnel boring, drillability test methods, project report 13A-98. Trondheim, NTNU, p 25Google Scholar
  11. Bruland A, Dahlo TS, Nilsen B (1995) Tunnelling performance estimation based on drillability testing. In: Proc 8th Int Congr Rock Mech, Tokyo, Japan, 25–30 Sept 1995, pp 123–126Google Scholar
  12. Capik M, Yilmaz AO, Yasar S, Yarali O, Cavusoglu I (2013) Comparison of drillability and abrasivity properties of rocks (in Turkish). In: 23rd Int Mining Congr Exhib Turkey (IMCET 2013), Antalya, Turkey, 16–19 April 2013, pp 659–669Google Scholar
  13. Dahl F (2003) DRI, BWI, CLI standards. NTNU, Trondheim, p 20Google Scholar
  14. Dahl F, Grøv E, Breivik T (2007) Development of a new direct test method for estimating cutter life, based on the Sievers’ J miniature drill test (technical note). Tunn Undergr Space Technol 22:106–116Google Scholar
  15. Dahl F, Bruland A, Grov E, Nilsen B (2010) Trademarking the NTNU/SINTEF drillability test indices. Tunnels Tunn Int 44–46Google Scholar
  16. Dahl F, Bruland A, Jakobsen PD, Nilsen B, Grøv E (2012) Classifications of properties influencing the drillability of rocks, based on the NTNU/SINTEF test method. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 28:150–158Google Scholar
  17. Demirdağ S, Sengün N, Uğur İ, Efe T, Akbay D, Altindağ R (2014) Variation of vertical and horizontal drilling rates depending on some rock properties in the marble quarries. Int J Min Sci Technol 24:269–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ersoy A, Waller MD (1995) Textural characterization of rocks. Eng Geol 39:123–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Franklin JA, Vogler UW, Szlavin J, Edmond JM, Bieniawski ZT (2007) Suggested methods for determining water-content, porosity, density, absorption and related properties and swelling and slake-durability index properties. In: Ulusay R, Hudson JA (eds) The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring; 1974–2006. ISRM Turkish National Group, Ankara, pp 83–98Google Scholar
  20. Hoseinie SH, Aghababaei H, Pourrahimian Y (2008) Development of a new classification system for assessing of rock mass drillability index (RDi). Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 45:1–10Google Scholar
  21. Howarth DF, Rowland JC (1987) Quantitative assessment of rock texture and correlation with drillability and strength properties. Rock Mech Rock Eng 20:57–85Google Scholar
  22. ISRM (1979) Suggested method for determining the uniaxial compressive strength and deformability of rock materials. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 16:135–140Google Scholar
  23. ISRM (1981) Suggested methods for determining hardness and abrasiveness of rocks. In: Ulusay R, Hudson JA (eds) The complete ISRM suggested methods for rock characterization, testing and monitoring; 1974–2006. ISRM Turkish National Group, Ankara, 3:101–103Google Scholar
  24. ISRM (1985) Suggested method for determining point load strength. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 22:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kahraman S, Balci C, Yazici S, Bilgin N (2000) Prediction of the penetration rate of rotary blast hole drilling using a new drillability index. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 37:729–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lien R (1961) An indirect test method for estimating the drillability of rocks. Doctoral dissertation. Department of Geology, NTH, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  27. Saeidi O, Torabi SR, Ataei M (2013) Development of a new index to assess the rock mass drillability. Geotech Geol Eng 31:1477–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Singh TN, Gupta AR, Sain R (2006) A comparative analysis of cognitive system for the prediction of drillability of rocks and wear factor. Geotech Geol Eng 24:299–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Thuro K (1996) Drillability prediction in hard rock tunnelling. In: Conf on Prediction in Geology, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 22–24 Feb 1996, pp 103–108Google Scholar
  30. Thuro K (1997) Drillability prediction—geological influences in hard rock drill and blast tunneling. Geol Rundsch 86:426–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thuro K, Spaun G (1996) Drillability in hard rock drill and blast tunneling. Felsbau 14(2):1–11Google Scholar
  32. Yaralı O (2008) Kayaçların Delinebilirlik ve Aşındırıcılıklarının Belirlenmesi. Türkiye 16. Kömür Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı. TMMOB Maden Mühendisleri Odası Yayını, Zonguldak, pp 65–76Google Scholar
  33. Yaralı O, Kahraman S (2011) The drillability assessment of rocks using the different brittleness values. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 26:406–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yarali O, Soyer E (2013) Assessment of relationships between drilling rate index and mechanical properties of rocks. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 33:46–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Yasar S, Capik M, Yılmaz AO (2015) Cuttability assessment using the drilling rate index (DRI). Bull Eng Geol Environ 74:1349. doi: 10.1007/s10064-014-0715-4
  36. Zare S, Bruland A (2013) Applications of NTNU/SINTEF drillability indices in hard rock tunneling. Rock Mech Rock Eng 46:179–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mining Engineering DepartmentKaradeniz Technical UniversityTrabzonTurkey

Personalised recommendations