Comparison of the landslides triggered by the 2013 Lushan earthquake with those triggered by the strong 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in areas with high seismic intensities
- 448 Downloads
The epicenters of the 2013 Lushan earthquake and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake were both in the Longmen Mountains, in areas with similar geographical, geological, and geomorphological conditions. However, there are some differences between the landslides triggered by the two earthquakes. Correlations between the occurrence of landslides and geological parameters such as the distance from the seismogenic fault, seismic intensity, elevation, and lithology were analyzed with the aid of field investigations. Firstly, more landslides were triggered by each earthquake close to the seismogenic fault and in areas with higher seismic intensities, although there were also obvious differences between the landslides generated by the two earthquakes. Secondly, the earthquakes showed different correlations between the number of landslides and elevation, and this difference was closely related to the effects of seismic amplification and peak ground acceleration. Nevertheless, the effect of seismic amplification during the Lushan earthquake was not significant at elevations of >2,000 m due to a reduction in earthquake magnitude at such elevations. Thirdly, there was no obvious correlation between the number of landslides and the age of the rock (young or old lithology) for each earthquake. Indeed, differences between the distributions of landslides across different lithologies were actually due to the coincidental clustering of young or old strata around the rupture zone of the seismogenic fault; these rock masses were extremely fractured and they underwent strong shaking. Finally, the author hopes that the results of the present research will aid further research into the landslides triggered by the two earthquakes.
KeywordsLushan earthquake Landslides Co-seismic fault Wenchuan earthquake Rock fall
This work was funded by the China Geological Survey, and supported by the Opening Fund of Key Laboratory of Western Mineral Resources and Geological Engineering of Ministry of Education (Chang’an University) (no. 2013G1502008). I thank Yibi Zhao, Tianyu Liu, Jiangbing Guan, Haokun Qin, Ning Zhang, Wei Yao, Zhixu Wang, Jie Gao, Jianping Zhou, Jianzhong Ma, Bo Zhang, and Jidong Guo for their field work in Lushan County, Baoxing County and Tianquan County shortly after the earthquake. I also thank LetPub for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript. Finally, I would like to thank the Editor-in-Chief Martin and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on an earlier draft of this paper.
- Chang M, Tang C, Li WL, Zhang DD, Jia T, Mao GC, Zhou ZY (2013) Image interpretation and spatial analysis of geohazards induced by “4.20” Lushan earthquake in epicenter area. J Chengdu Univ Technol (Sci Technol Ed) 40(3):264–274 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- China Seismological Bureau (2013) The fault rupture of the Apr. 20, 2013, Lushan earthquake is about 40 km and the maximum displacement is 1.6 m. (2013-04-23). http://www.cea.gov.cn/publish/dizhenj/468/553/100342/100343/20130423205445248545384/index.html (in Chinese)
- Chinese Academy of Sciences (2013) The preliminary results of the fault rupture process inversion. (2013-04-24). http://www.stdaily.com/special/content/2013-04/24/content_596813.thm (in Chinese)
- George P, Sotiris V, Athanassios G, Spyros P (2013) GIS-based statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquake-induced landslides in the island of Lefkada, Ionian Islands, Greece. Landslides 10:771–783. doi: 10.1007/s10346-021-0357-1
- Harp EL, Jibson RW (1996) Landslides triggered by the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 86(1B):S319–S332Google Scholar
- Lan HX, Zhou CH, Gao X, Cheng WM, Wang ZH, Yang ZH, Li LP, Wu YM (2013) Secondary geological hazard assessment and hazard mitigation countermeasures in Lushan, Ya’an Earthquake, Sichuan Province. Prog Geogr 32(4):499–504 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Liu CL, Zheng Y, Ge C, Xiong X, Hsu HT (2013) Rupture process of the Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake, 2013. Sci China Earth Sci 56:1187–1192. doi: 10.1007/s11430-013-4639-9
- US Geological Survey (2008) Shakemap us2008ryan. http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/shakemap/global/shake/2008ryan/
- Xie ZJ, Jin BK, Zheng Y, Ge C, Xiong X, Xiong C, Hsu HT (2013) Source parameters inversion of the 2013 Lushan earthquake by combining teleseismic waveforms and local seismograms. Sci China Earth Sci 56:1177–1186. doi: 10.1007/s11430-013-4640-3
- Xu C, Xiao JZ (2013) Spatial analysis of landslides triggered by the 2013 Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake: a case study of a typical rectangle area in the northeast of Taiping town. Seismol Geol 35(2):436–451 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Xu C, Xu XW, Zheng WJ, Wei ZY, Tan XB, Han ZJ, Li CY, Liang MJ, Li ZQ, Wang H, Wang MM, Ren JJ, Zhang SM, He ZT (2013c) Landsldies triggered by the April 20, 2013 Lushan, Sichuan Province Ms 7.0 strong earthquake of China. Seismol Geol 35(3):641–660 (in Chinese)Google Scholar