Skip to main content

Evaluating discrete viewpoint control to reduce cybersickness in virtual reality

Abstract

Cybersickness in virtual reality (VR) is an ongoing problem, despite recent advances in head-mounted displays (HMDs). Discrete viewpoint control techniques have been recently used by some VR developers to combat cybersickness. Discrete viewpoint techniques rely on reducing optic flow via inconsistent displacement, to reduce cybersickness when using stationary HMD-based VR systems. However, reports of their effectiveness are mostly anecdotal. We experimentally evaluate two discrete movement techniques; we refer to as rotation snapping and translation snapping. We conducted two experiments measuring participant cybersickness levels via the widely used simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ), as well as user-reported levels of nausea, presence, and objective error rates. Our results indicate that both rotation snapping and translation snapping significantly reduced SSQ by 40% for rotational viewpoint movement, and 50% for translational viewpoint movement. They also reduced participant nausea levels, especially with longer VR exposure. Presence levels, error rates, and performance were not significantly affected by either technique.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22

Notes

  1. http://www.croteam.com/.

  2. http://www.capcom.com/.

  3. https://gaming.youtube.com/game/UCs9XYBocLgnrQIuWKf0zuCw.

  4. https://store.steampowered.com/app/344180/Valiant/.

  5. http://www.vr-bits.com/.

  6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vVVdoquKhO8&t=15s.

  7. With 6 students from laboratory (age from 20 to 34).

  8. https://docs.unity3d.com/ScriptReference/AI.NavMeshAgent.html.

  9. We tested several different distances with 6 members in the laboratory to select four different jump distances.

  10. We also normalized the scores with standard score formula: \( {\text{Time}}\;{\text{score}} = \frac{{{\text{calculated}}\;{\text{time}} - u}}{\sigma } \); where µ is the mean and σ is the standard deviation of each jump distance group. The result was the same for both formulas. By doing this, we ensure that scores are normalized based on jump distance average score, since otherwise, the 2 m jump distance would always have the best score.

  11. One jump occurs with each click; hence, the number of clicks can be calculated from the traveled distance. For example, traveling 193 m with the 1 m jump distance required 193 clicks.

References

  • Arns LL, Cerney MM (2005) The relationship between age and incidence of cybersickness among immersive environment users. Proc IEEE Conf Virtual Reality. https://doi.org/10.1109/VR.2005.1492788

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boletsis C, Cedergren JE (2019) VR locomotion in the new era of virtual reality: an empirical comparison of prevalent techniques. Adv Hum Comput Interact. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7420781

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bonato F, Bubka A, Palmisano S, et al (2008) Vection change exacerbates simulator sickness in virtual environments. In: Presence: teleoperators and virtual environments. The MIT Press, pp 283–292

  • Bowman DA, Mcmahan RP (2007) Virtual reality: how much immersion is enough? (Cover story). Computer (Long Beach Calif) 40:36–43. https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2007.257

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bowman DA, Koller D, Hodges LF (1997) travel in immersive virtual environments : an evaluation of viewpoint motion control techniques Georgia Institute of Technology. In: Proceedings of IEEE 1997 virtual reality annual international symposium, p 45. https://doi.org/10.1109/VRAIS.1997.583043

  • Budhiraja P, Miller MR, Modi AK, Forsyth D (2017) Rotation blurring: use of artificial blurring to reduce cybersickness in virtual reality first person shooters. arXiv:1710.02599

  • Chang CH, Pan WW, Chen FC, Stoffregen TA (2013a) Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint. Exp Brain Res 229:235–242. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-013-3609-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chang E, Hwang I, Jeon H, et al (2013b) Effects of rest frames on cybersickness and oscillatory brain activity. In: International winter workshop on brain–computer interface, BCI. IEEE, pp 62–64

  • Chen DJ (2014) Frequency responses of visually induced motion sickness : isolating effects of velocity and amplitude of visual stimuli. Hong Kong

  • Davis S, Nesbitt K, Nalivaiko E (2014) A systematic review of cybersickness. In: Proceedings of 2014 conference on interactive entertainment—IE2014 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1145/2677758.2677780

  • Davis S, Nesbitt K, Nalivaiko E (2015) Comparing the onset of cybersickness using the Oculus Rift and two virtual roller coasters. In: 11th Australasian conference on interactive entertainment (IE 2015), pp 27–30. https://doi.org/10.17973/MMSJ.2015

  • Dorado JL, Figueroa PA (2014) Ramps are better than stairs to reduce cybersickness in applications based on a HMD and a Gamepad. In: IEEE symposium on 3D user interfaces 2014, 3DUI 2014 - Proc 47–50. https://doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2014.6798841

  • Farmani Y, Teather RJ (2018) Viewpoint snapping to reduce cybersickness in virtual reality. In: Proceedings—graphics interface, pp 159–166

  • Fernandes AS, Feiner SK (2016) Combating VR sickness through subtle dynamic field-of-view modification. In: 2016 IEEE symposium on 3D user interfaces, 3DUI 2016—Proc, pp 201–210. https://doi.org/10.1109/3DUI.2016.7460053

  • Golding J (1998) Motion sickness susceptibility questionnaire short-form (MSSQ-Short). Brain Res Bull 47:507–516

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hecht J (2016) Optical dreams, virtual reality. Opt Photonics News 27:24. https://doi.org/10.1364/opn.27.6.000024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hettinger LJ, Riccio GE (1992) Visually induced motion sickness in virtual environments. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ 1:306–310. https://doi.org/10.1162/pres.1992.1.3.306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hettinger LJ, Berbaum KS, Kennedy RS et al (1990) Vection and simulator sickness. Mil Psychol 2:171–181. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327876mp0203_4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hu S, McChesney KA, Player KA et al (1999) Systematic investigation of physiological correlates of motion sickness induced by viewing an optokinetic rotating drum. Aviat Sp Environ Med 70:759–765

    Google Scholar 

  • Kemeny A, George P, Mérienne F (2017) New VR navigation techniques to reduce cybersickness. ingentaconnect.com - Electron

  • Kennedy RS, Lane NE, Berbaum KS, Lilienthal MG (1993) Simulator sickness questionnaire: an enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. Int J Aviat Psychol 3:203–220. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327108ijap0303_3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy RS, Hettinger LJ, Harm DL et al (1996) Psychophysical scaling of circular vection (CV) produced by optokinetic (OKN) motion: individual differences and effects of practice. J Vestib Res Equilib Orientat 6:331–341. https://doi.org/10.3233/VES-1996-6502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kennedy RS, Stanney KM, Dunlap WP (2000) Duration and exposure to virtual environments: sickness curves during and across sessions. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ 9:463–472. https://doi.org/10.1162/105474600566952

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keshavarz B, Hecht H (2011) Axis rotation and visually induced motion sickness: the role of combined roll, pitch, and yaw motion. Aviat Sp Environ Med 82:1023–1029. https://doi.org/10.3357/ASEM.3078.2011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Keshavarz B, Riecke BE, Hettinger LJ, Campos JL (2015) Vection and visually induced motion sickness: how are they related? Front Psychol 6:1–11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00472

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kolasinski EM, Gilson RD (1998) Simulator sickness and related findings in a virtual reality. In: Proceedings of human factors and ergonomics society annual meeting

  • LaViola JJ (2000) A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments. ACM SIGCHI Bull 32:47–56. https://doi.org/10.1145/333329.333344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loomis JM, Klatzky RL, Golledge RG et al (1993) Nonvisual navigation by blind and sighted: assessment of path integration ability. J Exp Psychol Gen 122:73–91. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.122.1.73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park GD, Allen RW, Fiorentino D et al (2006) Simulator sickness scores according to symptom susceptibility, age, and gender for an older driver assessment study. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Annu Meet 50:2702–2706. https://doi.org/10.1177/154193120605002607

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Park GD, Allen RW, Fiorentino D et al (2014) Motion sickness adaptation: a neural mismatch model. Hum Factors 43:47–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00371-008-0277-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rebenitsch L, Owen C (2016) Review on cybersickness in applications and visual displays. Virtual Real 20:101–125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-016-0285-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ryge AN, Vollmers C, Hvass JS, et al (2018) A preliminary investigation of the effects of discrete virtual rotation on cybersickness. In: 25th IEEE conference on virtual reality and 3D user interfaces, VR 2018—Proceedings. IEEE Press, pp 675–676

  • Sanchez-Vives MV, Slater M (2005) From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nat Rev Neurosci 6:332–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sarupuri B, Chipana ML, Lindeman RW (2017) Trigger walking: a low-fatigue travel technique for immersive virtual reality. In: 2017 IEEE symposium on 3D user interfaces, 3DUI 2017—proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp 227–228

  • Seay AF, Krum DM, Hodges L, Ribarsky W (2002) Simulator sickness and presence in a high field-of-view virtual environment. In: Conference on human factors in computing systems—proceedings. IEEE Comput. Soc, pp 784–785

  • Seno T, Ito H, Sunaga S (2011) Inconsistent locomotion inhibits vection. Perception 40:747–750. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7018

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharples S, Cobb S, Moody A, Wilson JR (2008) Virtual reality induced symptoms and effects (VRISE): comparison of head mounted display (HMD), desktop and projection display systems. Displays 29:58–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.displa.2007.09.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • So RH, Lo WT, Ho AT (2001) Effects of navigation speed on motion sickness caused by an immersive virtual environment. Hum Factors 43:452–461. https://doi.org/10.1518/001872001775898223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stanney KM, Kennedy RS (1997) The psychometrics of cybersickness. Commun ACM 40:67–68

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toet A, de Vries SC, van Emmerik ML, Bos JE (2008) Cybersickness and desktop simulations: field of view effects and user experience. In: Enhanced and synthetic vision 2008. SPIE, p 69570P

  • Tschermak A (1931) Optischer Raumsinn. Receptionsorgane II. Springer, Berlin, pp 834–1000

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Weißker T, Bernd K, Ohlich F, Kulik A (2018) Spatial updating and simulator sickness during steering and jumping in immersive virtual environments. In: IEEE VR, pp 256–307

  • Witmer BG, Singer MJ (1998) Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence Teleoperators Virtual Environ 7:225–240. https://doi.org/10.1162/105474698565686

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yao R, Heath T, Davies A, Forsyth T, Mitchell N, (2016) Oculus best practices. Oculus doc introduction to best practices. https://developer.oculus.com/design/latest/concepts/book-bp/

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yasin Farmani.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Farmani, Y., Teather, R.J. Evaluating discrete viewpoint control to reduce cybersickness in virtual reality. Virtual Reality 24, 645–664 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00425-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-020-00425-x

Keywords

  • Virtual reality
  • Vection
  • Cybersickness
  • Visually induced motion sickness