Skip to main content

Virtual reality to improve group work skill and self-directed learning in problem-based learning narratives

Abstract

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a type of student-centred educational approach where students learn a topic via their experience in solving open-ended problems. In PBL, elements of active, interactive, and collaborative learning are incorporated to allow teachers to observe their students’ learning process. The contexts of problems in PBL are in the form of cases and narratives of the real world where there are no right or wrong answers. Virtual reality (VR) is a part of mixed reality where a real-world environment is made to be virtual online. In VR, real-world elements are rendered as 3D objects. By adopting VR technologies in PBL, this will enable teachers to form virtual world narratives and cases akin to problems in a real world. VR allows elements of active, interactive, and collaborative to be integrated in students’ learning process. This study explores how VR may be adopted to enable PBL and improve group work skill as well as self-directed learning. The gained research results indicated that PBL with the presentation problem scenario in VR environment is effective in enhancing the group work skills and self-directed learning among students.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

References

  • Abdelkhalek N, Hussein A, Gibbs T, Hamdy H (2010) Using team-based learning to prepare medical students for future problem-based learning. Med Teach 32(2):123–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Abdullah MNLY, Othman S, Samsudin MA, Yusoff MSB, Ismail HN (2013). Philosophy of Student-Centred Learning (SCL), Centre for Development of Academic Excellence (CDAE) USM, January 2013

  • Antepohl W, Domeij E, Forsberg P, Ludvigsson J (2003) A follow-up of medical graduates of a problem-based learning curriculum. Med Educ 37(2):155–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baptiste SE (2003) Problem-based learning: a self–directed journey. Slack, Thorofare

    Google Scholar 

  • Barrows H, Tamblyn R (1980) Problem-based learning: an approach to medical education, 1st edn. Springer Series on Medical Education. 1. Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Berge Z (2016) Computer-mediated communication and the online classroom in distance learning. http://www.ibiblio.org/cmc/mag/1995/apr/berge.html. Last retrieved 14 January 2016

  • Boud D, Feletti GI (1997) The challenge of problem-based learning, 2nd edn. Kogan Page Ltd, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell DT, Stanley JC (1963) Experimental and quasi-experimental design for research. Cengage Learning, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  • Creedy D, Alavi C (1997) Problem-based learning in an integrated curriculum. In: Boud D, Feletti GI (eds) The challenge of problem-based learning, 2nd edn. Kogan Page Ltd, London, pp 218–223

    Google Scholar 

  • Derry SJ (1999) A fish called peer learning: searching for common themes. In: O’Donnell AM, King A (eds) Cognitive perspectives on peer learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 197–211

    Google Scholar 

  • Dewey J (1989) Democracy and education. In: Boydston JA (ed) John dewey: the middle works, 1899–1924. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, pp 1–370

    Google Scholar 

  • Driver R, Asoko H, Leach J, Mortimer E, Scott P (1994) Constructing scientific knowledge in the classroom. Educ Res 23:5–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gokmen SI (2008) Effects of problem based on students’ environmental attitude through local vs non local environment problems. Unpublished master thesis, Middle East Technical University

  • Grady R, Gouldsborough I, Sheader E, Speake T (2009) Using innovative group-work activities to enhance the problem-based learning experience for dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 13(4):190–198

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harlen W (2006) Teaching, Learning And Assessing Science. SAGE Publications, London, pp 5–12

    Google Scholar 

  • Heard MJ (2016) Using a problem-based learning approach to teach students about biodiversity, species distributions and the impact of habitat loss. Am Biol Teach 78(9):733–738. https://doi.org/10.1525/abt.2016.78.9.733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jonassen DH (1999) Designing constructivist learning environment. In: Reigeluth CM (ed) Instructional-design theories and models, 2nd edn. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah

    Google Scholar 

  • Knowles MS (1975) Self-directed learning: a guide for learners and teachers. Cambridge Book Co, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Lambros A (2004) Problem-based learning in middle and high school classrooms. Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  • Lateh H, Muniandy P (2010) Environmental Education (EE): Current situational and the challenge among trainee teachers at Teachers Training Institute in Malaysia. WCES, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.1005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McMahon M (1997) Social constructivism and the world wide web—a paradigm for learning. In: Paper presented at the ASCILITE conference. Perth, Australia

  • Nelson LM (1999) Collaborative problem solving. In: Reigeluth CM (ed) Instructional-design theories and models, 2nd edn. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 241–267

    Google Scholar 

  • Osman K, Samsudin MA, Halim L (2013) Can problem based learning create a science culture in the classroom. In: Proceedings of WSEAS conference on recent advances in educational technologies, pp 67–75

  • Phang L (2011) Self-regulated learning in an e-learning environment in a Malaysian university. Dissertation, Curtin University

  • Powell KC, Kalina CJ (2009) Cognitive and social constructivisim: developing tools for an effective classroom. Education 130(2):241–250

    Google Scholar 

  • Problem Based Learning—Presently Gifted (Online) http://presentlygifted.weebly.com/problem-based-learning.html. Last retrieved 14 January 2016

  • Rajkoomar M, Raju J (2016) A framework using blended learning for innovative teaching and learning. Res Rev: J Educ Stud 3(2):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  • Reeves S, Summerfield Mann L, Caunce M, Beecraft S, Living R, Conway M (2004) Understanding the effects of problem-based learning on practice: findings from a survey of newly qualified occupational therapists. Br J Occup Ther 67(7):323–327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rideout E, Carpio B (2001) The problem based learning model of nursing education. In: Rideout E (ed) Transforming nursing education through PBL. Jones and BartlettPublishers, Boston

    Google Scholar 

  • Samsudin MA, Syed Idros SN, Abdullah J (2009) Designing problem scenarios of environmental issues in virtual reality environment.In: Proceedings of 2nd international PBL symposium, pp 247–251

  • Savin-Baden M (2000) Problem-based learning in higher education: untold stories. SRHE and Open University Press, Buckingham

    Google Scholar 

  • Savin-Baden M, Major CH (2004) Foundation of problem-based learning. Open University Press, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt HG, Moust JHC (2000) Factors affecting small-group tutorial learning: a review of research. In: Evensen DH, Hmelo CE (eds) Problem-based learning: a research perspective on learning interactions. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 19–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Seymour A (2013) A qualitative investigation into how problem-based learning impacts on the development of team-working skills in occupational therapy students. J Furth High Educ 37(1):1–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shea P (2007) Towards a conceptual framework for learning in blended environments. In: Picciano AG, Dziuban CD (eds) Blended Learning: Research Perspectives. Sloan Consortium, Needham, MA, pp 19–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Suh S (2005) The effect of using guided questions and collaborative groups for complex problem solving on performance and attitude in a web-enhanced learning environment. Unpublished dissertation, Florida State University

  • Tarhan L, Acar B (2007) Problem-based learning in an eleventh grade chemistry class: ‘factors affecting cell potential’. Res Sci Technol Educ 25(3):351–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tatara E, Oktay M (2011) The effectiveness of problem-based learning on teaching the first law of thermodynamics. Res Sci Technol Educ 29(3):315–332

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vygotsky LS (1978) Mind in society: the development of higher psychological Processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, p 57

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilkie K (2000). The nature of problem based learning. In: Problem based learning in nursing. McMillan, Basingstoke

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmerman B (2001) Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: an overview and analysis. In: Zimmerman BJ, Schunk DH (eds) Selfregulated learning and academic achievement: theoretical perspectives, 2nd edn. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp x–x322

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Dr. Mohd Ali Samsudin from the School of Educational Studies, University of Science Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia for the problem scenarios and collaboration opportunities.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Junaidi Abdullah.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abdullah, J., Mohd-Isa, W.N. & Samsudin, M.A. Virtual reality to improve group work skill and self-directed learning in problem-based learning narratives. Virtual Reality 23, 461–471 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00381-1

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-019-00381-1

Keywords

  • Problem-based learning
  • Virtual reality
  • VR scenario
  • Biodiversity
  • Self-directed learning
  • Learning interaction