Skip to main content
Log in

Haptically enabled simulation system for firearm shooting training

  • S.I. : Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality and Commerce
  • Published:
Virtual Reality Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Firearm shooting training is of importance in military and law enforcement training tasks. Traditional training usually uses actual firearms or modified bullets that are dangerous and expensive and difficult to evaluate the performance. Firearm training simulation systems provide risk-free alternatives. However, most existing simulation is visual-only, which lacks the immersion on the force feedback. In this paper, we proposed a new firearm training simulation system, which can provide more realistic training by incorporating physic effects on recoil and trigger pull weight. Dynamic, immersive, and repeatable training experiences while imposes no danger to trainees are provided in our system. The system consists of haptics, physics engine, and motion capture. These three components are carefully combined by developing the corresponding techniques of haptic force rendering, visuo-haptic integration, and synchronisation, physics-based dynamic simulation and motion analysis. Compared with existing systems, our training system has more complete functionalities that include visual firearm shooting, force generation, shooting reactions, result analysis and evaluation. Moreover, it is adaptable to off-the-shelf hardware and software packages and thus it can provide flexibility to system scalability and budget. To evaluate the proposed system, two demonstrations are conducted for users where the systems accuracy, immersion and usability are analysed. The results show the effectiveness of our physics-based shooting model and the proposed system on simulating different shooting scenarios.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

(Reproduced with permission from Krompiec and Park (2017)) (colour figure online)

Fig. 3

(Reproduced with permission from Junior et al. (2012))

Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

(NVIDA, GEFORCE, http://www.geforce.com/hardware-/technology/physx)

Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. KelTec products, PF-9, http://www.thektog.org/forum/f95/pops-aluminium-trigger-please-help-also-black-anodization-pics-245462.

  2. X-Ray gun shots, https://www.outdoorlife.com/node/1006033110.

  3. 3D SYSTEMS, The Touch Haptic Device, http://www.geomagic.com/en/products/phantom-omni/overview.

References

  • Ariour H, Nehaoua I, Hima S, Seguy N, Espie S (2010) Mechatronics, design, and modelling of a motorcycle riding simulator. IEEE/ASME Trans Mechatron 15:805–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Broeren J, Rydmark M, Sunnerhagen K (2004) Virtual reality and haptics as a training device for movement rehabilitation after stroke: a single-case study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85(8):1247–1250

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Buttolo P, Hannaford B (1995) Pen-based force display for precision manipulation in virtual environments. In: Hannaford B (ed) Virtual reality annual international symposium, pp 217–224

  • Conti F, Barbagli F, Morris D, Sewell C (2005) CHAI 3D: an open-source library for the rapid development of haptic scenes. IEEE World Haptics, Pisa

    Google Scholar 

  • Dimension F (2004) DELTA haptic device: 6-DOF force feedback interface. Force Dimens Lausanne 33(3):2006–187

    Google Scholar 

  • Faroque S, Horan B, Adam H, Pangestu M, Joordens M (2016) Haptic technology for micro-robotic cell injection training systems—a review. Intell Autom Soft Comput 22(3):509–523

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Junior A, Gomes G, Junior N, Santos A, Vidal C, Cavalcante-Neto J, Gattass M (2012) System model for shooting training based on interactive video, three-dimensional computer graphics and laser ray capture. In: 14th symposium on virtual and augmented reality, Rio Janiero, pp 254–260

  • Kadlecek P (2011) Overview of current developments in haptic APIs. In: Proceedings of CESCG

  • Krompiec P, Park K (2017) Enhanced player interaction using motion controllers for VR FPS. In: 2017 IEEE international conference on consumer electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, pp 19–20

  • Li S (2009) The design and implementation of shooting system simulation platform for police college. In: 2009 international conference on scalable computing and communications; eighth international conference on embedded computing, Dalian, pp 566–570

  • Liu G, Lu K (2011) Networked tank gunnery skill training based on haptic interaction. In: Proceedings of international conference on biomedical engineering and informatics, vol 4, pp 2220–2224

  • Luciano C, Banerjee P, DeFanti T (2009) Haptics-based virtual reality periodontal training simulator. Virtual Real 13(2):69–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marin F, Dominio F, Zanuttigh P (2014) Hand gesture recognition with leap motion and kinect devices. In: 2014 IEEE international conference on image processing (ICIP). IEEE

  • Martin S, Hillier N (2009) Characterisation of the novint falcon haptic device for application as a robot manipulator. In: Australasian Conference on Robotics and Automation (ACRA)

  • Raisamo J, Raisamo R, Kosonen K (2006) Distinguishing vibrotactile effects with tactile mouse and trackball. In: McEwan T, Gulliksen J, Benyon D (eds) People and computers XIX the bigger picture. Springer, London, pp 337–348

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Rodrigues T, Silva S, Duarte P (2017) The value of textual haptic information in online clothing shopping. J Fash Mark Manag 21(1):88–102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruspini D, Kolarov K, Khatib O (1997) The haptic display of complex graphical environments. In: Proceedings of the 24th annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques. ACM Press, pp 345–352

  • Salisbury J, Srinivasan M (1997) Phantom-based haptic interaction with virtual objects. IEEE Comput Graph Appl 17(5):6–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sewell C, Blevins NH, Peddamatham S, Tan HZ, Morris D, Salisbury K (2007) The effect of virtual haptic training on real surgical drilling proficiency. In: Second joint EuroHaptics conference and symposium on haptic interfaces for virtual environment and teleoperator systems (WHC 2007), pp. 22–24

  • Soetedjo A, Ashari M, Mahmudi A, Nakhoda Y (2014) Implementation of sensor on the gun system using embedded camera for shooting training. In: 2014 2nd international conference on technology, informatics, management, engineering & environment, Bandung, pp 69–74

  • Sourin A, Wei L (2009) Visual immersive haptic mathematics. Virtual Real 13(4):221–234

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tong H, Wang J, Duo Y (2010) Combat effectiveness evaluation of firearms system based on MMESE. In: 2010 international conference on information, networking and automation (ICINA), Kunming, pp 342–345

  • Wei L, Sourin A, Sourina O (2008) Function-based visualization and haptic rendering in shared virtual spaces. Vis Comput 24(10):871–880

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weichert F, Bachmann D, Rudak B, Fisseler D (2013) Analysis of the accuracy and robustness of the leap motion controller. Sensors 13(5):6380–6393

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wei L, Huynh L, Zhou H, Nahavandi S (2015) Immersive visuo-haptic rendering in optometry training simulation. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on systems, man, and cybernetics (SMC), pp 436–439

  • Wei L, Zhou H, Soe A, Nahavandi S (2013) Integrating kinect and haptics for interactive STEM education in local and distributed environments. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ASME international conference on advanced intelligent mechatronics, pp 1058–1065

  • Xia P, Lopes A, Restivo M, Yao Y (2012) A new type haptics-based virtual environment system for assembly training of complex products. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 58(1–4):379–396

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Z (2012) Microsoft kinect sensor and its effect. IEEE Multimed 19(2):4–10

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zilles C, Salisbury J (1995) A constraint-based god-object method for haptic display. In: Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ international conference on intelligent robots and systems 95. Human robot interaction and cooperative robots, vol 3, pp 146–151

Download references

Funding

Funding was provided by Defence Science Institute (Grant No. 50000).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hailing Zhou.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wei, L., Zhou, H. & Nahavandi, S. Haptically enabled simulation system for firearm shooting training. Virtual Reality 23, 217–228 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0349-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0349-0

Keywords

Navigation