Skip to main content

Leveraging advertising to a higher dimension: experimental research on the impact of virtual reality on brand personality impressions

Abstract

As new advertising formats emerge, research regarding their effectiveness is called for. Since the emergence of virtual reality (VR) technology, several brands have started implementing VR advertising in their communication strategies. The research objective of this study is to examine whether mobile VR advertising can positively impact managerially relevant brand outcome variables [brand personality (BP) impressions, brand attitude and purchase intentions] compared to traditional 2D advertising. An experimental between-subjects design comprising 160 respondents reveals a significant difference in impact between 2D and VR advertising on three out of five BP dimensions (namely ‘excitement’, ‘sophistication’ and a marginal effect on ‘ruggedness’). Furthermore, mobile VR advertising evokes significantly more positive consumer attitudes and higher purchase intentions than mobile 2D ads. The findings of this study imply that mobile VR advertising can be effective for brand managers who are in search of bringing their brands to life and who aim to obtain more positive consumer attitudes and higher purchase intentions towards their brands.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XRik3h5M-qU.

  2. 2.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FLiipi5jamA.

References

  1. Aaker J (1997) Dimensions of brand personality. J Mark Res 34(3):347–356

    Google Scholar 

  2. Aaker J (1999) The malleable self: the role of self-expression in persuasion. J Mark Res 36(February):45–57

    Google Scholar 

  3. Aaker DA, Jacobson R (2001) The value relevance of brand attitude in high-technology markets. J Mark Res 38(4):485–493

    Google Scholar 

  4. AdAge (2016) Cannes lions 2016: 10 key takeaways. AdAge. www.adage.com/article/special-report-cannes-lions/takeaways-cannes-lions-2016/304707. Accessed 18 Mar 2018

  5. Alcántara A (2016) 12 Types of new gadgets that will define 2016. Popsugar. http://www.popsugar.com/tech/Best-Tech-Gadgets-2016-39686863#photo-39696798. Accessed 8 Dec 2016

  6. Alvarez E (2016) Inside adidas’ new tech-infused store in New York City. Engadget. https://www.engadget.com/2016/12/10/adidas-new-flagship-store-new-york-city. Accessed 13 Dec 2016

  7. Anandkumar V, George J (2011) From Aaker to Heere: a review and comparison of brand personality scales. Res J Soc Sci Manag 1(3):30–51

    Google Scholar 

  8. Ang SH, Lim EAC (2006) The influence of metaphors and product type on brand personality perceptions and attitudes. J Advert 35(2):39–53

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ataman B, Ülengin B (2003) A note on the effect of brand image on sales. J Prod Brand Manag 12(4):237–250

    Google Scholar 

  10. Austin JR, Siguaw JA, Mattila AS (2003) A re-examination of the generalizability of the Aaker brand personality measurement framework. J Strateg Mark 11(2):77–92

    Google Scholar 

  11. Avis M (2011) Anthropomorphism and animism theory in branding. In: ACR Asia-Pacific advances

  12. Azoulay A, Kapferer J-N (2003) Do brand personality scales really measure brand personality? J Brand Manag 11(2):143–155

    Google Scholar 

  13. Barack L (2016) Best New York VR guide: experience Manhattan’s streets like a New Yorker. https://www.gearbrain.com/travel-new-york-vr-guide-1824659443.html. Accessed 17 Jan 2018

  14. Barnes S (2016) Understanding virtual reality in marketing: nature. Implic Potential. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2909100

    Google Scholar 

  15. Barton C, Koslow L, Fromm J, Egan C (2012) Millennial passions. Bcg perspectives by Boston Consulting Group. Accessed 10 Jan 2018

  16. Bhardwaj V, Fairhurst A (2010) Fast fashion: response to changes in the fashion industry. Int Rev Retail Distrib Consum Res 20(1):165–173

    Google Scholar 

  17. Bhat B, Bowonder B (2001) Innovation as an enhancer of brand personality: globalization experience of titan industries. Creat Innov Manag 10(1):26–39

    Google Scholar 

  18. Bonetti F, Warnaby G, Quinn L (2018) Augmented reality and virtual reality in physical and online retailing: a review, synthesis and research agenda. In: Jung T, Tom Dieck M (eds) Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. Progress in IS. Springer, Cham, pp 119–132

  19. Borsci S, Lawson G, Jha B, Burges M, Salanitri D (2016) Effectiveness of a multidevice 3D virtual environment application to train car service maintenance procedures. Virtual Real 20(1):41–55

    Google Scholar 

  20. Bosmans A (2006) Scents and sensibility: when Do (In)congruent ambient scents influence product evaluations? J Mark 70(3):32–43

    Google Scholar 

  21. Brakus JJ, Schmitt BH, Zarantonello L (2009) Brand experience: what is it? how is it measured? does it affect loyalty? J Mark 73(May):52–68

    Google Scholar 

  22. Bromiley K (2017) H&M releases new sports collection for 2017. World Class New York. https://www.worldclassnewyork.com/blogs/news/h-m-releases-new-sports-collection-for-2017. Accessed 8 Jan 2017

  23. Bruce M, Daly L (2006) Buyer behaviour for fast fashion. J Fash Mark Manag Int J 10(3):329–344

    Google Scholar 

  24. Caprara GV, Barbaranelli C, Guido G (2001) Brand personality: how to make the metaphor fit? J Econ Psychol 22(3):377–395

    Google Scholar 

  25. Chen CS, Hung YP, Shih SW, Hsieh CC, Tang CY, Yu CG, Cheng YC (1998) Integrating virtual objects into real images for augmented reality. In: Proceedings of the ACM symposium on virtual reality software and technology, pp 1–8

  26. Chiu CM, Wang ET, Fang YH, Huang HY (2014) Understanding customers’ repeat purchase intentions in B2C e-commerce: the roles of utilitarian value, hedonic value and perceived risk. Inf Syst J 24(1):85–114

    Google Scholar 

  27. Chodorge S (2018) Ikea et Accenture imaginent le magasin augmenté pour les centres-villes. Usine Digitale. www.usine-digitale.fr/article/mwc-2018-ikea-et-accenture-imaginent-le-magasin-augmente-pour-les-centres-villes.N659064. Accessed 18 Mar 2018

  28. Choi YK, Taylor CR (2014) How do 3-dimensional images promote products on the Internet? J Bus Res 67(10):2164–2170

    Google Scholar 

  29. Coyle JR, Thorson E (2001) The effects of progressive levels of interactivity and vividness in web marketing sites. J Advert 30(3):65–77

    Google Scholar 

  30. Crabtree J (2016) Virtual reality: the next big thing in advertising? CNBC. http://www.cnbc.com/2016/08/19/virtual-reality-the-next-big-thing-in-advertising.html. Accessed 31 Oct 2016

  31. d’Astous A, Boujbel L (2007) Positioning countries on personality dimensions: scale development and implications for country marketing. J Bus Res 60(3):231–239

    Google Scholar 

  32. Davies G, Chun R, Vinhas da Silva R, Roper S (2004) A corporate character scale to assess employee and customer views of organization reputation. Corp Reput Rev 7:125–146

    Google Scholar 

  33. Davis FD (1989) Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q 13(3):319–340

    Google Scholar 

  34. Davis B (2016) The Boursin sensorium: using virtual reality to sell soft cheese. Econsultancy. https://econsultancy.com/blog/67391-the-boursin-sensorium-using-virtual-reality-to-sell-soft-cheese. Accessed 20 Oct 2016

  35. de la Toldos-Romero MP, Orozco-Gomez MM (2015) Brand personality and purchase intention. Eur Bus Rev 27(5):462–476

    Google Scholar 

  36. Debbabi S, Daassi M, Baile S (2010) Effect of online 3D advertising on consumer responses: the mediating role of telepresence. J Mark Manag 26(9–10):967–992

    Google Scholar 

  37. Dolatabadi HR, Kazemi A, Rad NS (2012) The impact of brand personality on product sale through brand equity (case study: cosmetic products retailers). Int J Acad Res Bus Soc Sci 2(11):294–309

    Google Scholar 

  38. Dolbec PY, Chebat JC (2013) The impact of a flagship vs. a brand store on brand attitude, brand attachment and brand equity. J Retail 89(4):460–466

    Google Scholar 

  39. Doucé L, Poels K, Janssens W, De Backer C (2013) Smelling the books: the effect of chocolate scent on purchase-related behavior in a bookstore. J Environ Psychol 36:65–69

    Google Scholar 

  40. Dua, T (2014) Volvo launches virtual reality campaign on Google Cardboard. Digiday. https://digiday.com/brands/volvo-becomes-first-automaker-use-google-cardboard-offers-test-drives-new-car. Accessed 20 Oct 2016

  41. Edwards SM, Gangadharbatla H (2001) The novelty of 3D product presentations online. J Interact Advert 2(1):10–18

    Google Scholar 

  42. Eisend M, Stokburger-Sauer NE (2013) Brand personality: a meta-analytic review of antecedents and consequences. Mark Lett 24(3):205–216

    Google Scholar 

  43. Epley N, Waytz A, Cacioppo JT (2007) On seeing human: a three-factor theory of anthropomorphism. Psychol Rev 114(4):864–886

    Google Scholar 

  44. Fennis BM, Das E, Fransen ML (2012) Print advertising: vivid content. J Bus Res 65(6):861–864

    Google Scholar 

  45. Ferrandi JM, Valette-Florence P, Fine-Falcy S (2000) Aaker’s brand personality scale in a French context: a replication and a preliminary test of its validity. In: Proceedings of the 2000 academy of marketing science (AMS) annual conference, pp 7–13

  46. Field M (2017) The 10 best virtual reality apps. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/0/10-best-virtual-reality-apps/. Accessed 17 Jan 2018

  47. Fortin DR, Dholakia RR (2005) Interactivity and vividness effects on social presence and involvement with a web-based advertisement. J Bus Res 58(3):387–396

    Google Scholar 

  48. Fournier S (1998) Consumers and their brands: developing relationship theory in consumer research. J Consum Res 24(4):343–353

    Google Scholar 

  49. Freling TH, Forbes LP (2005) An examination of brand personality through methodological triangulation. J Brand Manag 13(2):148–162

    Google Scholar 

  50. Garaus M, Wagner U, Bäck AM (2017) The effect of media multitasking on advertising message effectiveness. Psychol Mark 34(2):138–156

    Google Scholar 

  51. Gartner (2016) Gartner’s 2016 hype cycle for emerging technologies identifies three key trends that organizations must track to gain competitive advantage. Gartner. http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/3412017. Accessed 13 Dec 2016

  52. Gartner (July 2017) Gartner hype cycle. https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/top-trends-in-the-gartner-hype-cycle-for-emerging-technologies-2017. Accessed 16 Jan 2018

  53. Geuens M, Weijters B, De Wulf K (2009) A new measure of brand personality. Int J Res Mark 26(2):97–107

    Google Scholar 

  54. Goldsmith RE, Goldsmith EB (2012) Brand personality and brand engagement. Am J Manag 12(1):11–20

    Google Scholar 

  55. Goldsmith RE, Hofacker CF (1991) Measuring consumer innovativeness. J Acad Mark Sci 19(3):209–221

    Google Scholar 

  56. Govers PCM, Mugge R (2004) ‘I love my Jeep, because it’s tough like me’, the effect of product-personality congruence on product attachment. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on design and emotion in Ankara

  57. Grohmann B (2009) Gender dimensions of brand personality. J Mark Res 46(1):105–119

    Google Scholar 

  58. Guppta K (2015) Virtual reality could help advertisers become relevant again. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kaviguppta/2015/03/19/virtual-reality-could-help-advertisers-become-relevant-again/#4f0e535d5240. Accessed 8 Dec 2016

  59. Hartmann T, Klimmt C, Vorderer P (2010) Telepresence and media entertainment. Taylor & Francis Group, New York

    Google Scholar 

  60. Hess S, Bauer H, Kuester S, Huber F (2007) In brands we trust: marketing’s impact on service brand personality and trust. In: European marketing academy 36th conference proceedings (May), pp 22–25

  61. Homer PM (1990) The mediating role of attitude toward the ad: some additional evidence. J Mark Res 27(1):78–86

    Google Scholar 

  62. Hosany S, Ekinci Y, Uysal M (2006) Destination image and destination personality: an application of branding theories to tourism places. J Bus Res 59(5):638–642

    Google Scholar 

  63. Jaunt VR (2015) The north face climb. Jaunt VR. https://www.jauntvr.com/title/TheNorthFace-extended.v11

  64. Jin S-AA (2010) Effects of 3D virtual haptics force feedback on brand personality perception: the mediating role of physical presence in advergames. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 13(3):307–311

    Google Scholar 

  65. Keller KL (2001) Building customer-based brand equity: a blueprint for creating strong brands. Working paper (no. 01-107). Marketing Science Institute, Cambridge

  66. Keller KL (2009) Building strong brands in a modern marketing communications environment. J Mark Commun 15(2–3):139–155

    Google Scholar 

  67. Keller PA, Block LG (1997) Vividness effects: a resource-matching. J Consum Res 24(3):295–304

    Google Scholar 

  68. Kim HS (2000) Examination of brand personality and brand attitude within the apparel product category. J Fash Mark Manag 4(3):243–252

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  69. Kim CK, Han D, Park SB (2001) The effect of brand personality and brand identification on brand loyalty: applying the theory of social identification. Jpn Psychol Res 43(4):195–206

    Google Scholar 

  70. King KW (2017) Special topics session: using virtual reality to tell brand stories: the state of the art and future directions. In: American Academy of Advertising. Conference, Proceedings (Online). American Academy of Advertising, Lubbock, pp 94–95

  71. Klein LR (2003) Creating virtual product experiences: the role of telepresence. J Interact Mark 17(1):41–55

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  72. Kwon JH, Powell J, Chalmers A (2013) How level of realism influences anxiety in virtual reality environments for a job interview. Int J Hum Comput Stud 71(10):978–987

    Google Scholar 

  73. Landicho J (2017) How to Improve Customer Experience with VR (Virtual Reality). https://www.infusionsoft.com/business-success-blog/customer-service/customer-experience/how-to-use-vr-for-customer-experience. Accessed 16 Jan 2018

  74. Lau KW, Lee PY (2016) The role of stereoscopic 3D virtual reality in fashion advertising and consumer learning. Adv Advert Res 6(1):75–83

    Google Scholar 

  75. Lee H, Cho C-H (2009) The matching effect of brand and sporting event personality: sponsorship implications. J Sport Manag 23:41–64

    Google Scholar 

  76. Lee HJ, Kang SM (2013) The effect of brand personality on brand relationship, attitude and purchase intention with a focus on brand community. Acad Mark Stud J 17(2):85–97

    Google Scholar 

  77. Lee C, Yang C, Hung H (2017) Evaluating game-brand congruity and flow on brand personality by using Gamifying learning. Eurasia J Math Sci Technol Educ 13(7):3083–3097

    Google Scholar 

  78. Li H, Daugherty T, Biocca F (2001) Characteristics of virtual experience in electronic commerce: a protocol analysis. J Interact Mark 15(3):13–30

    Google Scholar 

  79. Lim EAC, Ang SH (2008) Hedonic vs. utilitarian consumption: a cross-cultural perspective based on cultural conditioning. J Bus Res 61(3):225–232

    Google Scholar 

  80. Lin L (2010) The relationship of consumer personality trait, brand personality and brand loyalty: an empirical study of toys and video games buyers. J Prod Brand Manag 19(1):4–17

    Google Scholar 

  81. Litvin X, Yen CLA, Uysal M (2016) An examination of brand personality in economy hotel segment: common and differentiating factors. Tourism Travel and Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally 52

  82. Mandelbaum A (2015) Everything hotels need to know about Virtual Reality Marketing. Hotelexecutive. http://hotelexecutive.com/business_review/4524/everything-hotels-need-to-know-about-virtual-reality-marketing. Accessed 20 Oct 2016

  83. Mathwick C, Malhotra N, Rigdon E (2001) Experiential value: conceptualization, measurement and application in the catalog and Internet shopping environment. J Retail 77(1):39–56

    Google Scholar 

  84. Mazaheri E, Richard MO, Laroche M (2012) The role of emotions in online consumer behavior: a comparison of search, experience, and credence services. J Serv Mark 26(7):535–550

    Google Scholar 

  85. McKnight CG, Huebner ES, Suldo S (2002) Relationships among stressful life events, temperament, problem behavior, and global life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychol Sch 39(6):677–687

    Google Scholar 

  86. Meenaghan T (1995) The role of advertising in brand image development. J Prod Brand Manag 4(4):23–34

    Google Scholar 

  87. Microsoft (2018) Oculus rift touch. https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/store/d/oculus-rift-touch/8mt5ws8lgbwl?activetab=pivot%3aoverviewtab. Accessed 18 Jan 2018

  88. Mikropoulos TA (2006) Presence: a unique characteristic in educational virtual environments. Virtual Reality 10(3–4):197–206

    Google Scholar 

  89. Milas G, Mlačić B (2007) Brand personality and human personality: findings from ratings of familiar Croatian brands. J Bus Res 60(6):620–626

    Google Scholar 

  90. Millennialmedia (2015) The North Face explores new channels with 1st ever mobile campaign. http://www.millennialmedia.com/mobile-insights/client-stories/the-north-face-explores-new-channels-with-1st-ever-mobile-campaign. Accessed 5 Jan 2018

  91. Mooy SC, Robben HS (2002) Managing consumers’ product evaluations through direct product experience. J Prod Brand Manag 11(7):432–446

    Google Scholar 

  92. Morwitz VG, Steckel JH, Gupta A (2007) When do purchase intentions predict sales? Int J Forecast 23(3):347–364

    Google Scholar 

  93. Mueller S, Remaud H, Chabin Y (2011) How strong and generalisable is the generation Y effect? a cross-cultural study for wine. Int J Wine Bus Res 23(2):125–144

    Google Scholar 

  94. Murphy S (2016) McDonald’s happy meal VR headset. http://mashable.com/2016/03/18/mcdonalds-happy-meal-vr-headset/#Cm4L4.ljhGqx. Accessed 17 Jan 2018

  95. Muzellec L, O’Raghallaigh E (2017) Mobile technology and its impact on the consumer decision-making journey: how brands can capture the mobile-driven “Ubiquitous” moment of truth. J Advert Res 57(4):JAR-2017

    Google Scholar 

  96. Mybryonic (2016) 10 Best uses of virtual reality in marketing. Wearvr. https://www.wearvr.com/apps/santas-sleigh-ride-vr. Accessed 6 Dec 2016

  97. Nah FF, Eschenbrenner B, Dewester D (2011) Enhancing brand equity through flow and telepresence: a comparison of 2D and 3D virtual worlds. MIS Q 35(3):731–747

    Google Scholar 

  98. Nam JM (1997) Establishing Equivalence of Two Treatments and Sample Size Requirements in Matched-Pairs Design. Biometrics 53(4):1422

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  99. Nandan S (2005) An exploration of the brand identity–brand image linkage: a communications perspective. J Brand Manag 12(4):264–278

    Google Scholar 

  100. Overmars S, Poels K (2015) How product representation shapes virtual experiences and re-patronage intentions: the role of mental imagery processing and experiential value. Int Rev Retail Distrib Consum Res 25(3):236–259

    Google Scholar 

  101. Pantano E (2014) Innovation drivers in retail industry. Int J Inf Manage 34(3):344–350

    Google Scholar 

  102. Parasuraman A, Colby CL (2015) An updated and streamlined technology readiness index: TRI 2.0. J Serv Res 18(1):59–74

    Google Scholar 

  103. Park S, Choi D, Kim J (2005) Visualizing E-brand personality: exploratory studies on visual attributes and E-brand personalities in Korea. Int J Hum Comput Interact 19(1):7–34

    Google Scholar 

  104. Petersen JA, Kumar V (2015) Perceived risk, product returns, and optimal resource allocation: evidence from a field experiment. J Mark Res 52(2):268–285

    Google Scholar 

  105. Peterson RA (2001) On the use of college students in social science research: insights from a second-order meta-analysis. J Consum Res 28(3):450–461

    Google Scholar 

  106. Peterson RA, Merunka DR (2014) Convenience samples of college students and research reproducibility. J Bus Res 67(5):1035–1041

    Google Scholar 

  107. Pine J, Gilmore JH (1998) Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Bus Rev 76(4):97–105

    Google Scholar 

  108. Puto CP, Wells WD (1984) Informational and transformational advertising: the differential effects of time. NA Adv Consum Res 11:638–643

    Google Scholar 

  109. Ramaseshan B, Tsao H-Y (2007) Moderating effects of the brand concept on the relationship between brand personality and perceived quality. J Brand Manag 14(6):458–466

    Google Scholar 

  110. Riva G, Mantovani F, Capideville CS, Preziosa A, Morganti F, Villani D, Gaggioli A, Botella C, Alcañiz M (2007) Affective interactions using virtual reality: the link between presence and emotions. CyberPsychol Behav 10(1):45–56

    Google Scholar 

  111. Sanchez-Vives MV, Slater M (2005) From presence to consciousness through virtual reality. Nat Rev Neurosci 6(4):332–339

    Google Scholar 

  112. Segijn CM, Voorveld HA, Vandeberg L, Smit EG (2017) The battle of the screens: unraveling attention allocation and memory effects when multiscreening. Hum Commun Res 43(2):295–314

    Google Scholar 

  113. Sekar PC, Thomas BJ (2008) Measurement and validity of Jennifer Aaker’s brand personality scale for colgate brand. Vikalpa 33(3):49–61

    Google Scholar 

  114. Serrano B, Baños RM, Botella C (2016) Virtual reality and stimulation of touch and smell for inducing relaxation: a randomized controlled trial. Comput Hum Behav 55:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  115. Sharar SR, Miller W, Teeley A, Soltani M, Hoffman HG, Jensen MP, Patterson DR (2008) Applications of virtual reality for pain management in burn-injured parients. Expert Rev Neurother 8(11):1667–1674

    Google Scholar 

  116. Sheridan TB (1992) Musings on telepresence and virtual presence. Presence Teleoper Virtual Environ 1(1):120–126

    Google Scholar 

  117. Sherry JL (2004) Flow and media enjoyment. Commun Theory 14(4):328–347

    Google Scholar 

  118. Shih CF (1998) Conceptualizing consumer experiences in cyberspace. Eur J Mark 32(7/8):655–663

    Google Scholar 

  119. Simonson I, Carmon Z, Dhar R, Drolet A, Nowlis SM (2001) Consumer research: in search of identity. Annu Rev Psychol 52(1):249–275

    Google Scholar 

  120. Sirgy MJ (1982) Self-concept in consumer behavior: a critical review. J Consum Res 9(3):287–300

    Google Scholar 

  121. Spears N, Singh SN (2004) Measuring attitude toward the brand and purchase intentions. J Curr Issues Res Advert 26(2):53–66

    Google Scholar 

  122. Statista (2017) Worldwide retail E-commerce sales. https://www.statista.com/statistics/379046/worldwide-retail-e-commerce-sales. Accessed 25 Dec 2017

  123. Steuer J (1992) Defining virtual reality: dimensions determining telepresence. J Commun 42(4):73–93

    Google Scholar 

  124. Stoyanova J, Brito PQ, Georgieva P, Milanova M (2015) Comparison of consumer purchase intention between interactive and augmented reality shopping platforms through statistical analyses. In: International symposium on innovations in intelligent systems and applications in Madrid, pp 1–8

  125. Sung Y, Kim J (2010) Effects of brand personality on brand trust and brand affect. Psychol Mark 27(7):639–661

    Google Scholar 

  126. Supphellen M, Grønhaug K (2003) Building foreign brand personalities in Russia: the moderating effect of consumer ethnocentrism. Int J Advert 22(2):203–226

    Google Scholar 

  127. The North Face (2017) The North Face main page. https://www.thenorthface.com. Accessed 27 Dec 2017

  128. Valette-Florence P, Guizani H, Merunka D (2011) The impact of brand personality and sales promotions on brand equity. J Bus Res 64(1):24–28

    Google Scholar 

  129. Van der Heijden H, Verhagen T, Creemers M (2003) Understanding online purchase intentions: contributions from technology and trust perspectives. Eur J Inf Syst 12(1):41–48

    Google Scholar 

  130. Van Kerrebroeck H (2017) Enriching the digital customer experience: studying the role of virtual reality, augmented reality and touch technologies. Doctoral dissertation, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Economic and Social Sciences and Solvay Business School

  131. Van Kerrebroeck H, Brengman M, Willems K (2017a) When brands come to life: experimental research on the vividness effect of Virtual Reality in transformational marketing communications. Virtual Reality 21(4):177–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-017-0306-3

    Google Scholar 

  132. Van Kerrebroeck H, Brengman M, Willems K (2017b) Escaping the crowd: an experimental study on the impact of a virtual reality experience in a shopping mall. Comput Hum Behav 77(December):437–450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.019

    Google Scholar 

  133. Van Kerrebroeck H, Willems K, Brengman M (2017c) Touching the void: exploring consumer perspectives on touch-enabling technologies in online retailing. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 45(7/8):892–909. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJRDM-09-2016-0156

    Google Scholar 

  134. Venkatesh V, Morris MG, Davis GB, Davis FD (2003) User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Q 27(3):425–478

    Google Scholar 

  135. Venkatesh V, Thong JY, Xu X (2012) Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS Q 36(1):157–178

    Google Scholar 

  136. Verhagen T, Feldberg F, Van Den Hooff B, Meents S, Merikivi J (2011) Satisfaction with virtual worlds: an integrated model of experiential value. Inf Manag 48(6):201–207

    Google Scholar 

  137. Walsh KR, Pawlowski SD (2002) Virtual reality: a technology in need of IS research. Commun Assoc Inf Syst 8(1):20

    Google Scholar 

  138. Wang RJH, Malthouse EC, Krishnamurthi L (2015) On the go: how mobile shopping affects customer purchase behavior. J Retail 91(2):217–234

    Google Scholar 

  139. Wijayanto G (2015) Measuring dimensions of brand personality. In: Proceedings of the 2015 1st international conference on economics and banking held at Jawa Barat, Indonesia

  140. Willems K, Janssens W, Swinnen G, Brengman M, Streukens S, Vancauteren M (2012) From Armani to Zara: impression formation based on fashion store patronage. J Bus Res 65(10):1487–1494

    Google Scholar 

  141. Willems K, Smolders A, Brengman M, Luyten K, Schöning J (2016) The path-to-purchase is paved with digital opportunities: an inventory of shopper-oriented retail technologies. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 124(2017):228–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.10.066

    Google Scholar 

  142. Willems K, Brengman M, Brengman M, van de Sanden S (2017) In-store proximity marketing: experimenting with digital point-of-sales communication. Int J Retail Distrib Manag 45(7/8):910–927

    Google Scholar 

  143. Witmer BG, Singer MJ (1998) Measuring presence in virtual environments: a presence questionnaire. Presence 7(3):225–240

    Google Scholar 

  144. Yin A (2015) Brands look far and wide for a niche in virtual reality. NY Times. www.nytimes.com/2015/11/16/business/media/brands-look-far-and-wide-for-a-niche-in-virtual-reality.html. Accessed 8 Jan 2017

  145. Zarantonello L, Jedidi K, Schmitt BH (2013) Functional and experiential routes to persuasion: an analysis of advertising in emerging versus developed markets. Int J Res Mark 30(1):46–56

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Laurens De Gauquier.

Appendix

Appendix

See Table 2.

Table 2 Questionnaire constructs and scale items

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

De Gauquier, L., Brengman, M., Willems, K. et al. Leveraging advertising to a higher dimension: experimental research on the impact of virtual reality on brand personality impressions. Virtual Reality 23, 235–253 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-018-0344-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Virtual reality
  • Advertising
  • Brand personality
  • Brand attitude
  • Purchase intentions