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A cost-effective interactive 3D virtual reality system applied to military live firing training

Abstract

The goal of the present study was to develop a cost-effective, man–machine digital interface, to improve students’ real-world firing range training, results, and achievement scores. A serious game-based learning environment was developed, integrating invisible laser infrared technology, 1:1 real-scale rifle guns with recoil effects, as well as 3D interactive virtual reality (VR) military training digital information content, to train students in military live firing. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed design, students’ performance, in terms of their learning achievement and learning motivation, was examined. One hundred and sixty high school students from Taiwan were divided into four individual groups of 40 students each, with one control group and three experimental groups (EG1, EG2, and EG3). The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance. The results of this cost-effective 3D VR showed significantly better learning motivation, learning outcomes, and positive impacts on users’ actual live firing achievement scores.

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Acknowledgments

This research is parti2ally supported by the “Aim for the Top University Project” of National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU), sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C. and the “International Research-Intensive Center of Excellence Program” of NTNU, and National Science Council, Taiwan, R.O.C. under Grant No. NSC 103-2911-I-003-301.

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Correspondence to Chun-Yen Chang.

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Kaushal Kumar Bhagat and Wei-Kai Liou have contributed equally to this work.

Appendix A: Motivation questionnaire

Appendix A: Motivation questionnaire

  1. 1.

    Are you satisfied with this teaching method?

  2. 2.

    Do you agree this teaching method benefited for your shooting skills?

  3. 3.

    Do you agree this teaching method help you to learn easier?

  4. 4.

    Do you agree this teaching method increases your motivation for learning shooting skills?

  5. 5.

    Do you agree this teaching method makes you spontaneous to learn?

  6. 6.

    Do you agree this teaching method allows you to concentrate better?

  7. 7.

    Do you agree this teaching method makes you more actively involved?

  8. 8.

    Do you agree this teaching method enhances the interaction between you and instructor?

  9. 9.

    Do you agree this teaching method has positive influence on your learning achievement?

  10. 10.

    Do you agree this teaching method builds self-confidence in the true live firing range exam?

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Bhagat, K.K., Liou, WK. & Chang, CY. A cost-effective interactive 3D virtual reality system applied to military live firing training. Virtual Reality 20, 127–140 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-016-0284-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10055-016-0284-x

Keywords

  • Serious games
  • Virtual reality (VR)
  • Military training
  • Learning outcome
  • Learning motivation