Virtual Reality

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 151–161 | Cite as

Transfer of learning in virtual environments: a new challenge?

  • Cyril Bossard
  • Gilles Kermarrec
  • Cédric Buche
  • Jacques Tisseau
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of all education is to apply what we learn in different contexts and to recognise and extend this learning to new situations. Virtual learning environments can be used to build skills. Recent research in cognitive psychology and education has shown that acquisitions are linked to the initial context. This provides a challenge for virtual reality in education or training. A brief overview of transfer issues highlights five main ideas: (1) the type of transfer enables the virtual environment (VE) to be classified according to what is learned; (2) the transfer process can create conditions within the VE to facilitate transfer of learning; (3) specific features of VR must match and comply with transfer of learning; (4) transfer can be used to assess a VE’s effectiveness; and (5) future research on transfer of learning must examine the singular context of learning. This paper discusses how new perspectives in cognitive psychology influence and promote transfer of learning through the use of VEs.

Keywords

Transfer of learning Training Virtual environment Learning models 

References

  1. Analoui F (1993) Training and transfer of learning. Avebury, Aldershot Google Scholar
  2. Anderson JR, Reder LM, Simon H (1996) Situated learning and education. Educ Res 25(4):5–11Google Scholar
  3. Bassok M, Holyoak KJ (1993) Pragmatic knowledge and conceptual structure: determinants of transfer between quantitative domains. In: Detterman DK, Sternberg RJ (eds) Transfer on trial: intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Ablex Publishing, Norwood, pp 68–98Google Scholar
  4. Bobick AF, Intille SS, Davis JW, Baird F, Pinhanez CS, Campbell LW, Ivanov YA, Schütte A, Wilson A (2000) Perceptual user interfaces: the kidsroom. Commun ACM 43(3):60–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bracke D (1998) Vers un modèle théorique du transfert. Le rôle des affordances, des catégories et des modèles mentaux. Unpublished PhD thesis. Université de MontréalGoogle Scholar
  6. Bricken W (1991) Training in virtual reality, proceedings of the 1st international conference on virtual reality, London, pp 46–48Google Scholar
  7. Brooks LW, Dansereau DF (1987) Transfer of information: an instructional perspective. In: S. M. Cormier and J. D. Hagman (ed), Transfer of learning: contemporary research and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 121–150Google Scholar
  8. Brooks BM, Atree EA, Rose FD, Clifford BR, Leadbetter AG (1999a) The specificity of memory enhancement during interaction with a virtual environment. Memory 7:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooks BM, McNeil JE, Rose FD, Greenwood RJ, Atree EA, Leadbetter AG (1999b) Route learning in a case of amnesia: the efficacity of training in a virtual environment. Neuropsychol Rehabil 9:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown A, Bransford J, Ferrara R, Campione J (1983) Learning, remembering and understanding. In: Mussen PH (ed.). Handbook of child psychology (4th edn). vol III: cognitive development,. J. H. Flavel and E. M. Markman (eds vol III): John Wiley, New York, pp 77–166Google Scholar
  11. Buche C, Querrec R, De Loor P, Chevaillier P (2004) MASCARET : a pedagogical multiagent system for virtual environment for training. J Dist Educ Technol 2:41–61Google Scholar
  12. Cromby JJ, Standen PJ, Newman J, Tasker H (1996) Successful transfer to the real world of skills practised in a virtual environment by students with severe learning difficulties. In: Proceedings of the ECDVRAT: 1st European conference on disability, virtual reality and associated technologies, reading, University of Reading, UK, pp 103–107Google Scholar
  13. Cormier SM (1987) The structural processes underlying transfer of training. In: Cormier SM, Hagman JD (eds) Transfer of learning: contemporary research and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 151–181Google Scholar
  14. Cormier SM, Hagman JD (eds) (1987) Transfer of learning: contemporary research and applications. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Cox BD (1997) The rediscovery of the active learner in adaptive contexts: a developmental–historical analysis of transfer of training. Educ Psychol 32:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craik FIM, Lockhart RS (1972) Levels of processing a framework for memory research. J Verbal Learn Verbal Behav 11:671–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Corte E (1999) On the road to transfer: an introduction. Intern J Educ Res 31:555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Detterman DK (1993) The case for the prosecution: transfer as an epiphenomenon. In: Detterman DK, Sternberg RJ (eds) Transfer on trial: intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Ablex Publishing, Norwood, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  19. Detterman DK, Sternberg RJ (eds) (1993) Transfer on trial: intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Ablex Publishing, Norwood Google Scholar
  20. Frejus M, Drouin A, Thibault G, Schmid A (1997) Conception de systèmes de réalité virtuelle pour la formation d’agents de maintenance. Paper presented at the XXXII congrés de la SELF, Lyon 1997Google Scholar
  21. Gerval JP, Popovici M, Ramdani M, El Kalai O, Boskoff V, Tisseau J (2002) “Virtual environments for children”. In: proceedings international conference on computers and advanced technology education (CATE), Cancun, 416–420Google Scholar
  22. Gibson JJ (1977) The theory of affordances. In: Shaw R, Bransford J (eds) Perceiving, acting and knowing. Toward an ecological psychology. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, pp 67–82Google Scholar
  23. Gick ML, Holyoak KJ (1987) The cognitive basis on knowledge transfer. In: S. M. Cormier and J. D. Hagman (ed), Transfer of learning. Contemporary research and applications. Academic Press, New York pp 9–46Google Scholar
  24. Greeno JG, Moore JL, Smith DR (1993) Transfer of situated learning. In: D. K. Detterman and R. J. Sternberg (eds), Transfer on trial: intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Ablex Publishing, Norwood, pp 99–167Google Scholar
  25. Haskell RE (2001) Transfer of learning: Cognition, instruction and reasoning. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  26. Hatano G, Greeno JG (1999) Commentary: alternative perspectives on transfer and transfer studies. Intern J Educ Res 31:645–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hayes-Roth B, VanGent R (1997) Story-making with improvisional puppets. In: Proceedings of first international conference on autonomous agents, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  28. Hietala P, Niemirepo T (1998) Multiple artificial teachers: how do learners cope with a multi-agent learning environment? In: Ayala G (eds) International workshop on current trends and applications of artificial intelligence and education. ITESM, Mexico City, pp 33–40Google Scholar
  29. Holyoak KJ, Thagard P (1995) Mental leaps: analogy in creative thought. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson A, Moher T, Leigh J, Lin Y (2000) Quickworlds: Teacher-driven VR worlds in an elementary school curriculum. In: Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000. Educators Program, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  31. Kokinov B (1995) A dynamic approach to context modeling. In: Brezillon P, Abu-Hakima S (eds) In proceedings of the IJCAI-95 workshop on modeling context in knowledge representation and reasoning. LAFORIA 95/11Google Scholar
  32. Kokinov B (2003) Analogy in decision-making, social interaction, and emergent rationality. Behav Brain Sci 26(2):167–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kozak JJ, Hancock PA, Arthur EJ, Chrysler ST (1993) Transfer of training from virtual reality. Ergonomics 36(7):777–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lave J (1988) Cognition in practice: mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Lave J, Wenger E (1991) Situated learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  36. Law (1994) Transfer of learning: situated cognition perspectives, Research Report no. 32. Munchen: Lehrstuhl fur Empirische Padagogik and Padagogische Psychologie, Ludwig Maximilians-UniversitatGoogle Scholar
  37. Lobato J (2002) Reconceiving transfer. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  38. Marini A, Généreux R (1995) The challenge of teaching for transfer. In: McKeough A, Lupart J, Marini A (eds) Teaching for transfer: fostering generalization in learning. Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  39. Mateas M (1997) An oz-centric review of interactive drama and believable agents. Technical report CMU-CS-97-156, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon UniversityGoogle Scholar
  40. Mayer RE, Wittrock MC (1996) Problem solving transfer. In: Berliner DC, Calfee RC (eds) Handbook of educational psychology. MacMillian Library, USA, pp 47–62Google Scholar
  41. McLellan H (1991) Virtual environments and situated learning. Multimed Rev 2(3):30–37Google Scholar
  42. McKeough A, Lupart J, Marini A (eds) (1995) Teaching for transfer: fostering generalization in learning. Erlbaum, MahwahGoogle Scholar
  43. Mendelsohn P (1996) Le concept de transfert. In: P. Meirieu et M. Develay (eds), Le transfert des connaissances en formation initiale et en formation continue. Centre régional de documentation pédagogique de l’Académie de Lyon,Lyon, pp 11–19Google Scholar
  44. Misko J (1995) Transfer: using learning in new contexts. NCVER, Leabrook Google Scholar
  45. Misko J (1999) The transfer of knowledge and skill to different contexts: an empirical perspective. NCVER, LeabrookGoogle Scholar
  46. Morganti F (2004) Virtual interaction in cognitive neuropsychology. In: Riva G, Botella C, Legeron P, Optale G (eds) Cybertherapy: internet and virtual reality as assessment and rehabilitation tools for clinical psychology and neuroscience, IOS Press, pp 55–70Google Scholar
  47. Pennington N, Nicolich R, Rahm J (1995) Transfer of training between cognitive subskills: is knowledge use specific? Cogn Psychol 28:175–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Perkins DN, Salomon G (1988) Teaching for transfer. Educ Leadersh 46(1):22–32Google Scholar
  49. Perkins DN, Salomon G (1989) Are cognitive skills context-bound? Educ Res 18(1):16–25Google Scholar
  50. Perkins JN, Salomon G (1996) Learning transfer. In: Tuijman A (eds) Industrial psychology. 2nd edn. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  51. Popovici D-M, Gerval JP, Chevaillier P, Tisseau J, Serbanati LD, Gueguen P (2004) Educative distributed virtual environments for children. JDET 2(4):18–40Google Scholar
  52. Popovici D-M, Querrec R, Harrouet F, Le Gal C, Şerbănaţi L-D, Morvan S (2005) VirtualDive: A VR-based educational virtual environment. In 7th international symposium on symbolic and numeric algorithms for scientific computing (SYNASC’05), pp 191–198Google Scholar
  53. Prawat RS (1989) Promoting access to knowledge, strategy and disposition in students: a research synthesis. Rev Educ Res 59(1):1–41Google Scholar
  54. Presseau A, Frenay M (2004) Le transfert des apprentissages. Comprendre pour mieux intervenir. Presses de l’université de LavalGoogle Scholar
  55. Psotka J (1995) Immersive training systems: virtual reality and education and training. Instr sci 23(5–6):405–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Regian JW (1997) Virtual Reality for training: evaluating transfer. In: Kreutzer J, Wehman P (eds) Community integration following traumatic brain injury: a functional approach. Paul H. Brookes, Baltimore, pp 157–169Google Scholar
  57. Richard JF (1990) Les activités mentales: comprendre, raisonner, trouver des solutions. Armand Colin, ParisGoogle Scholar
  58. Robertson J, Oberlander J (2002) Ghostwriter: educational drama and presence in a virtual environment. J Comput Mediat Commun 8(1)Google Scholar
  59. Rose FD Atree EA, Perslow DM, Penn PR, Ambihaipahan N (2000) Training in virtual environments: transfer to real world tasks and equivalence to real task training. Ergonomics 43(4):494–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roussos M, Johnson A, Moher T, Leigh J, Vasilakis C, Barnes C (1999) Learning and building together in an immersive virtual world. Presence 8(3):247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Singley MK, Anderson JR (1989) Transfer of cognitive skill. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  62. Subedi BS (2004) Emerging trends of research on transfer of learning. Intern Educ J 5(4):591–599Google Scholar
  63. Tardif J (1999) Le transfert des apprentissages. Montréal: Les Éditions LogiquesGoogle Scholar
  64. Tisseau J, Querrec R, Reignier P, Chevaillier P (2001) Humans and autonomous agents’ interactions in a virtual environment for fire fighting training. Digit Interact Vis Art 8:12–13Google Scholar
  65. Volbracht S, Domik G, Backe-Neuwaldand D, Rickens H (1998) The “Citygame”: an example of a virtual environment for teaching spatial orientation. J Univers Comput Sci 4(4):461–465Google Scholar
  66. Waller D, Hunt E, Knapp D (1998) The transfer of spatial knowledge in virtual environment training. Presence teleoperat virtual environ 7:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Webber C, Bergia L, Pesty S, Balacheff N (2001) The baghera project: a multi-agent architecture for human learning. In: Vassileva JI (eds) Proceedings of the workshop on multi-agent architectures for distributed learning environments. San Antonio, USA, pp 12–17Google Scholar
  68. Wilson PN, Foreman N, Tlauka M (1996) Transfer of spatial information from a virtual to a real environment in physically disabled children. Disabil Rehabil 18:633–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Winn WD (2002) What can students learn in artificial environments that they cannot learn in class? Paper presented at the first international symposium, Open Education Faculty, Anadolu Unversity, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  70. Winn W (2003) Learning in Artificial Environments: Embodiment, embeddedness and dynamic Adaptation. Tech Instruct Cognit Learn 1:87–114Google Scholar
  71. Witmer BG, Bailey JH, Knerr BW, Parsons KC (1996) Virtual spaces and real world places: transfer of route knowledge. Int J Hum Comput Stud 45(4):413–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yungblut C (1998) Educational uses of virtual reality, technology. IDA document D-2128. Institute for Defense Analyses, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cyril Bossard
    • 1
  • Gilles Kermarrec
    • 1
  • Cédric Buche
    • 1
  • Jacques Tisseau
    • 1
  1. 1.LISyC UEB UBO-ENIB-ENSIETA, European Center for Virtual RealityPlouzanéFrance

Personalised recommendations