Virtual Reality

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 24–30 | Cite as

Interaction with co-located haptic feedback in virtual reality

  • David Swapp
  • Vijay Pawar
  • Céline Loscos
Original Article


This paper outlines a study into the effects of co-location (the term ‘co-location’ is used throughout to refer to the co-location of haptic and visual sensory modes, except where otherwise specified) of haptic and visual sensory modes in VR simulations. The study hypothesis is that co-location of these sensory modes will lead to improved task performance within a VR environment. Technical challenges and technological limitations are outlined prior to a description of the implementation adopted for this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect on user performance of co-located haptics (force feedback) in a 3D virtual environment. Results show that co-location is an important factor, and when coupled with haptic feedback the performance of the user is greatly improved.


Haptics Co-location 



We would like to thank Deepti Narwani and Emanuele Ruffaldi for their help in the current study. The work presented in this paper was partially funded by the collaborative European project PUREFROM (IST-2000-29580), a 3-year RTD project funded by the 5th Framework Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme of the European Union.


  1. Arsenault R, Ware C (2000) Eye–hand co-ordination with force feedback. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, The Hague, pp 408–414Google Scholar
  2. Bouguila L, Ishii M, Sato M (2000) Effect of coupling haptics and stereopsis on depth perception in virtual environment. World multiconference on systemics, cybernetics and informatics (SCI 2000), Orlando, pp 406–414Google Scholar
  3. Caclin A, Soto-Faraco S, Kingstone A, Spence C (2002) Tactile “capture” of audition. Percept Psychophys 64(4):616–630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng K, Pulo K (2003) Direct interaction with large scale display system using infrared laser tracking devices. In: Australasian symposium on information visualisation, Adelaide, 2003. Conferences in research and practice in information technology, vol 24Google Scholar
  5. Dettori A, Avizzano CA, Marcheschi S, Angerilli M, Bergamasco M, Loscos C, Guerraz A (2003) Art touch with CREATE haptic Interface, ICAR 2003. In: 11th International conference on advanced robotics, University of Coimbra, Portugal, June 30–July 3Google Scholar
  6. Dinh HG, Walker N, Hodges LF, Song C, Kobayashi A (1999) Evaluating the importance of multi-sensory input on memory and the sense of presence in virtual environments. In: Rosenblum L, Astheimer P, Teichmann D (eds) Proceedings of the IEEE virtual reality ‘99 conference. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, pp 222–228Google Scholar
  7. Durlach P, Fowlkes J, Metevier C (2005) Effect of variations in sensory feedback on performance in a virtual reaching task. Presence 14(4):450–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ernst MO, Banks MS, Bulthoff HH (2000) Touch can change visual slant perception. Nat Neurosci 3(1):69–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Frisoli A, Jansson G, Bergamasco M, Loscos C (2005) Evaluation of the pure-form haptic displays used for exploration of works of art at museums, World haptics conference, Pisa, March 18–20Google Scholar
  10. Hayward V, Astley OR, Cruz-Hernandez M, Grant D, Robles-De-La-Torre G (2004) Haptic interfaces and devices. Sensor Rev 24(1):16–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. von Helmholtz H (1867) Treatise on physiological optics, vol III (English translation by Southall J, 1925)Google Scholar
  12. Hoffman HG (1998) Physically touching virtual objects using tactile augmentation enhances the realism of virtual environments. In: Proceedings of the IEEE virtual reality annual international symposium’98, Atlanta, pp 59–63Google Scholar
  13. Jack CE, Thurlow WR (1973) Effects of degree of visual association and angle of displacement on the “ventriloquism” effect. Percept Mot Skills 37:967–979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Loscos C, Tecchia F, Carrozino M, Frisoli A, Ritter Widenfeld H, Swapp D, Bergamasco M (2004) The museum of pure form: touching real statues in a virtual museum, VAST 2004. In: 5th International symposium on virtual reality, archaeology and cultural heritage, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  15. Meehan M, Insko B, Whitton M, Brooks FP (2001) Physiological measures of presence in virtual environments. In: Proceedings of 4th international workshop on presence, Philadelphia, pp 21–23Google Scholar
  16. Rolland JP, Biocca FA, Barlow T, Kancherla A (1995) Quantification of adaptation to virtual-eye location in see-thru head-mounted displays. In: Proceedings of the VRAIS, pp 56–66Google Scholar
  17. Sallnäs E, Rassmus-Gröhn K, Sjöström C (2000) Supporting presence in collaborative environments by haptic force feedback. ACM Trans Comput-Hum Interact 7(4):461–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Sato M (2002) Development of string-based force display: SPIDAR. In: 8th International conference on virtual systems and multimedia (VSMM2002), Gyeongju (alias Kyongju), KoreaGoogle Scholar
  19. Shneiderman B (1983) Direct manipulation: a step beyond programming languages. IEEE Comput 16(8):57–69Google Scholar
  20. Shneiderman B (1997) Designing the user interface, Chapter 9, interaction devices (Sections 9.1–9.3), 3rd edn. Addison-Wesley, Reading, pp 306–327Google Scholar
  21. Stratton G (1896) Some preliminary experiments on vision without inversion of the retinal image. Psychol Rev 3:611–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wall SA, Paynter K, Shillito AM, Wright M, Scali S (2002) The effect of haptic feedback and stereo graphics in a 3D target acquisition task. In: Proceedings of eurohaptics 2002, University of Edinburgh, 8–10th July, pp 23–29Google Scholar
  23. Wallace M, Roberson G, Hairston W, Stein B, Vaughan J, Schirillo J (2004) Unifying multisensory signals across time and space. Exp Brain Res 158(2):252–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Wann J, Rushton S, Mon-Williams M (1994) Natural problems for stereoscopic depth perception in virtual environments. Vis Res 35(19):2731–2736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ware C, Rose J (1999) Rotating virtual objects with real handles. ACM Trans Comput-Hum Interact 6(2):162–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations