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Notfall + Rettungsmedizin

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 364–372 | Cite as

Fit für die Rettung?

Kardiovaskuläres Risiko und kardiorespiratorische Fitness von im Rettungsdienst tätigen Berufsfeuerwehrbeamten in Nordrhein-Westfalen
  • M. Strauß
  • H. Karutz
  • P. Foshag
  • N. Spelsberg
  • B. Dworrak
  • M. Horlitz
  • R. Leischik
Originalien
  • 608 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Ziel der Studie

Prospektive Erhebung kardiovaskulärer Risikofaktoren (KRF) und der kardiorespiratorischen Fitness bei Berufsfeuerwehrbeamten in Deutschland und Vergleich mit der internationalen Literatur.

Methodik

97 im Rettungsdienst eingesetzte Berufsfeuerwehrbeamte (FB) aus Nordrhein-Westfalen nahmen an der Studie teil (Zeitraum 1/2014 bis 9/2014). Die Teilnahme war freiwillig und die Daten wurden anonymisiert. Erhoben wurden anthropometrische Parameter, KRF und die kardiorespiratorische Fitness. Zur Berechnung des 10-Jahres-Herz-Kreislaufs-Risikos wurde der Framingham-Risk-Score benutzt. Das metabolische Syndrom wurde mittels der Definition der International Diabetes Federation diagnostiziert.

Ergebnisse

Die untersuchten FB zeigten einen deutlichen Trend zur Übergewichtigkeit, erhöhtem BMI und Bauchumfang. Bei 32 % der teilnehmenden Feuerwehrbeamten war ein erhöhter Bauchumfang messbar. In 17,5 % der Fälle zeigten Feuerwehrbeamte eine Erhöhung des systolischen Ruheblutdrucks, der diastolische Ruheblutdruck war in 40,2 % erhöht. Die Werte der relativen maximalen Sauerstoffaufnahme (rel. VO2max) lagen eher im Bereich der Durchschnittsbevölkerung (37,3 ± 6,3 ml ∙ kg−1min−1). Das 10-Jahre-Herz-Kreislauf-Risiko ist im internationalen Vergleich als gleichwertig bzw. geringer einzustufen (nach Framingham-Risk-Score). Bei knapp 14 % der untersuchten FB war ein metabolisches Syndrom nachweisbar. Bei Betrachtung des metabolischen Syndroms im internationalen Vergleich war die Prävalenz bei den deutschen Feuerwehrbeamten dennoch mit am niedrigsten.

Schlussfolgerung

Die Ergebnisse zeigen vermehrt bestehende kardiovaskuläre Gesundheitsrisiken bei den untersuchten FB. In einem Beruf, der gerade auch im Hinblick auf rettungsdienstliche Einsätze körperliche Fitness erfordert, besteht Handlungsbedarf zur Minimierung der KRF und zur Verbesserung der Fitness. Aufgrund der besonderen Einsatzbelastung sollte durch verstärkte Edukation (Empowerment) und durch eine Optimierung des Settingansatzes (interne spezielle Trainingsprogramme, Gestaltung der Freizeit) eine Verbesserung des KRF und der kardiorespiratorischen Fitness erreicht werden. Hierzu sollte auch eine Implementierung gesundheitsfördernder Konzepte in Betracht gezogen werden.

Schlüsselwörter

Feuerwehr Rettungsdienst Risikofaktoren Kardiovaskuläres Risiko Gesundheit 

Fit for rescue?

Cardiovascular risk and cardiorespiratory fitness of active firefighters in emergency service in North Rhine-Westphalia

Abstract

Aim

Prospective examination of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters (FFs) in Germany and comparison with the international literature.

Methods

A total of 97 North Rhine–Westphalian FFs working in emergency service participated in the study (time period 1/2014–9/2014). Participation was voluntary and data were anonymized. Anthropometric parameters, CV risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness were examined. In order to estimate the 10-year CV risk, the Framingham Risk Score was utilized. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the definition of the International Diabetes Federation.

Results

The examined FFs demonstrated a significant tendency towards obesity which was shown by the BMI and by abdominal waist circumference. In 32 % of FFs, an increased abdominal waist circumference was measured. Systolic resting blood pressure was elevated in 17.5 % of FFs; diastolic resting blood pressure was increased in 40.2 %. The relative maximal oxygen uptake (rel. VO2max; 37.3 ± 6.3 ml ∙ kg−1min−1) was comparable with the average citizen. In international comparison, the 10-year CV risk can be seen as equivalent or less (according to the Framingham Risk Score). In 14 % of the examined FFs, a metabolic syndrome was detected. When regarding the metabolic syndrome, the international comparison revealed that the prevalence of the German FFs was among the lowest.

Conclusion

The results showed frequent CV risks factors in the examined FFs. Especially in a job which requires physical fitness, the results lead to a need for action in order to minimize the CV risk factors and to improve their fitness. Due to the particular labor conditions FFs have to be educated (empowerment). The setting has to be changed (internal training programs and leisure time activities toward more physical fitness) to decrease CV risk factors and to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, an implementation of health-promoting concepts should be taken into consideration.

Keywords

Fire service Emergency service Risk factor Cardiovascular risk Health 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

M. Strauß, H. Karutz, P. Foshag, N. Spelsberg, B. Dworrak, M. Horlitz und R. Leischik geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet von den Autoren durchgeführte Studien an Menschen, die durch die Ethikkommission der Universität Witten/Herdecke genehmigt wurden.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Strauß
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. Karutz
    • 2
    • 3
  • P. Foshag
    • 1
  • N. Spelsberg
    • 1
  • B. Dworrak
    • 1
  • M. Horlitz
    • 1
    • 4
  • R. Leischik
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrbereich Prävention, Gesundheitsförderung und Sportmedizin, Fakultät für Gesundheit, Department HumanmedizinUniversität Witten/HerdeckeHagenDeutschland
  2. 2.Notfallpädagogisches InstitutEssenDeutschland
  3. 3.Hochschule für Gesundheit und MedizinMedical School HamburgHamburgDeutschland
  4. 4.Klinik Porz am Rhein, Fakultät für GesundheitUniversität Witten/HerdeckeKölnDeutschland

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