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Sleep and self-care correlates before and after implantation of a left-ventricular assist device (LVAD)

Abstract

The impact of sleep on LVAD patients’ self-care behaviors is unknown. This study examined the patterns and changes of patients sleep quality (SQ), daytime sleepiness (DS), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and self-care capability (SCC) before and after LVAD. In addition, the relationships among these variables were explored. This observational study consisted of 38 subjects from two VAD Centers in Michigan. The subjects completed self-reported demographics and psychometrically sound SQ, DS, IADL, and SCC questionnaires before LVAD implant and at 1, 3, and 6 months after implant. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear mixed models, and partial least square models. Subjects (mean age, 56.3 ± 10.3 years) were predominantly white (63%), male (68%), married (60%), and living with caregivers (92%). Over 70% had axial flow LVADs implanted as bridge-to-transplant (55%). Subjects’ SQ was poor throughout the study period, along with high normal-to-excessive levels of DS. Problems with IADL before implant were significantly reduced at 1 through 6 months after implant. SCC ranged from “good” to “excellent” before and after implant. Significant relationships between SQ and IADL (β = 0.43, p < 0.01) and DS and SCC (β = − 0.62, p < 0.01) were found. In conclusion, poor SQ and high degrees of DS were prevalent before and up to 6 months after LVAD implant. The data inferred that the improvement in IADL was associated with an improvement in SQ. Research is needed to clarify the negative impact of DS on SCC and explain the contributions of caregivers on patients’ SCC over time.

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Acknowledgements

Funds were received from Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars Program (Grant ID # 66525).

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Correspondence to Jesus M. Casida or James J. Yang.

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Casida, J.M., Davis, J.E., Pagani, F.D. et al. Sleep and self-care correlates before and after implantation of a left-ventricular assist device (LVAD). J Artif Organs 21, 278–284 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10047-018-1043-4

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Keywords

  • Ventricular assist devices
  • Mechanical circulatory support
  • Sleep
  • Self-care
  • Instrumental activities of daily living