Skip to main content
Log in

Implantation study of a tissue-engineered self-expanding aortic stent graft (bio stent graft) in a beagle model

  • Original Article
  • Biomaterials
  • Published:
Journal of Artificial Organs Aims and scope Submit manuscript


The use of stent grafts for endovascular aortic repair has become an important treatment option for aortic aneurysms requiring surgery. This treatment has achieved excellent outcomes; however, problems like type 1 endoleaks and stent graft migration remain. Bio stent grafts (BSGs), which are self-expanding stents covered with connective tissue, were previously developed using “in-body tissue architecture” technology. We assessed their early adaptation to the aorta after transcatheter implantation in a beagle model. BSGs were prepared by subcutaneous embedding of acryl rods mounted with self-expanding nitinol stents in three beagles for 4 weeks (n = 3/dog). The BSGs were implanted as allografts into infrarenal abdominal aortas via the femoral artery of three other beagles. After 1 month of implantation, aortography revealed no stenosis or aneurysmal changes. The luminal surface of the BSGs was completely covered with neointimal tissue, including endothelialization, without any thrombus formation. The cover tissue could fuse the luminal surface of the native aorta with tight conjunctions even at both ends of the stents, resulting in complete impregnation of the strut into the reconstructed vascular wall, which is expected to prevent endoleaks and migration in clinical applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Parodi JC, Palmaz JC, Barone HD. Transfemoral intraluminal graft implantation for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ann Vasc Surg. 1991;5:491–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Dake MD, Miller DC, Semba CP, Mitchell RJ, Walker PJ, Liddell RP. Transluminal placement of endovascular stent-grafts for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. N Engl J Med. 1994;331:1729–34.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Knepper J, Upchurch GR. A review of clinical trials and registries in descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. Sem Vasc Surg. 2010;23:170–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Garcia-Toca M, Eskandari MK. Regulatory TEVAR clinical trials. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52:22S–5S.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. United Kingdom EVAR Trial Investigators, Greenhalgh RM, Brown LC, Powell JT, Thompson SG, Epstein D, Sculpher MJ. Endovascular versus open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1863–71.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Prinssen M, Buskens E, Blankensteijn JD, DREAM trial participants. Quality of life endovascular and open AAA repair. Results of a randomized trial. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2004;27:121–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Torsello G, Troisi N, Donas KP, Austermann M. Evaluation of the endurant stent graft under instructions for use vs off-label conditions for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54:300–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Hoshina K, Kato M, Hosaka A, Miyahara T, Mikuriya A, Ohkubo N, Miyata T. Middle-term results of endovascular aneurysm repair in Japan: does intraoerative endovascular management against the hostile aneurismal neck prevent the proximal type I endoleak? Int Angiol. 2011;30:467–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Kawajiri H, Oka K, Kanda K, Yaku H. Aneurysm formation at the both ends of an endograft associated with maladaptive aortic changes after endovascular aortic repair in a healthy patients. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2013;17:895–7.

    Article  PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Kawajiri H, Mizuno T, Moriwaki T, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Yamanami M, Kanda K, Yaku H, Nakayama Y. Development of tissue-engineered self-expandable aortic stent grafts (bio stent grafts) using in-body tissue architecture technology in beagles. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2014 (in press).

  11. Seldinger SI. Catheter replacement of the needle in percutaneous arteriography; a new technique. Acta Radiol. 1953;39:368–76.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. JCS Joint Working Group. Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection (JCS 2011: digest version). Circ J. 2013;77:789–828.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Zahn R, Erbel R, Nienaber CA, Naumann FJ, Nef H, Eggebrecht H, Senges J. Endovascular aortic repair of thoracic aortic disease: early and 1-year results from a German multicenter registry. J Endovasc Ther. 2013;20:265–72.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Szeto WY, Desai ND, Moeller P, Moser GW, Woo EY, Fairman RM, Pochettino A, Bavaria JE. Reintervention for endograft failures after thoracic endovascular aortic repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145:165–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Brinster CJ, Fairman RM, Woo EY, Wang GJ, Carpentier JP, Jackson BM. Late open conversion and explantation of abdominal aortic stent grafts. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54:42–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Shin’oka T, Matsumura G, Hibino N, Naito Y, Watanabe M, Konuma T, Sakamoto T, Nagatsu M, Kurosawa H. Midterm clinical result of tissue-engineered vascular autografts seeded with autologous bone marrow cells. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;129:1330–8.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Watanabe T, Kanda K, Yamanami M, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Yaku H, Nakayama Y. Long-term animal implantation study of biotube-autologous small-caliver vascular graft fabricated by in-body tissue architecture. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2011;1:120–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Takewa Y, Yamanami M, Kishimoto Y, Arakawa M, Kanda K, Matsui Y, Oie T, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Tajikawa T, Ohba K, Yaku H, Taenaka Y, Tatsumi E, Nakayama Y. In vivo evaluation of an in-body, tissue-engineered, completely autologous valved conduit (biovalve typeIV) as an aortic valve in a goat model. J Artif Organs. 2013;16:176–84.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Kajimoto M, Shimono T, Hirano K, Miyake Y, Kato N, Imanaka-Yoshida K, Shimpo H, Miyamoto K. Basic fibroblast growth factor slow release stent graft for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair: a canine model experiment. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48:1306–14.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Kusanagi M, Matsui O, Sanada J, Ogi T, Takamatsu S, Zhong H, Kimura Y, Tabata Y. Hydrogel-mediated release of basic fibroblast growth factor from a stent-graft accelerates biological fixation with the aortic wall in a porcine model. J Endovasc Ther. 2007;14:785–93.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Bashar M, Kazui T, Terada H, Suzuki K, Washiyama N, Yamashita K, Baba S. Histological changes in canine aorta 1 year after stent-graft implantation. J Endovasc Ther. 2002;9:320–32.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Watanabe T, Kanda K, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Yaku H, Nakayama Y. Autologous small-caliber “biotube” vascular grafts with argatroban loading: a histomorphological examination after implantation to rabbits. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;92:236–42.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Nakayama Y, Yamaoka S, Yamanami M, Fujiwara M, Uechi M, Takamizawa K, Ishibashi-Ueda H, Nakamichi M, Uchida K, Watanabe T, Kanda K, Yaku H. Water-soluble argatroban for antithrombogenic surface coating of tissue-enginnered cardiovascular tissues. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2011;99:420–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors thank Mr. Yasuhiro Hoshino (Piolax) for his participation in this study.

Conflict of interest

None declared.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Hidetake Kawajiri or Yasuhide Nakayama.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kawajiri, H., Mizuno, T., Moriwaki, T. et al. Implantation study of a tissue-engineered self-expanding aortic stent graft (bio stent graft) in a beagle model. J Artif Organs 18, 48–54 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: