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Therapeutic strategy using extracorporeal life support, including appropriate indication, management, limitation and timing of switch to ventricular assist device in patients with acute myocardial infarction

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  • Cardiopulmonary Bypass
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The appropriate indication for, management of and limitations to extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and the timing of a switch to a ventricular assist device (VAD) remain controversial issues in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated with cardiogenic shock or cardiopulmonary arrest. To evaluate and discuss these issues, we studied patients with AMI treated with ECLS and compared deceased and discharged patients. Thirty-eight patients with AMI who needed ECLS [35 men (92.1 %), aged 59.9 ± 13.5 years] were enrolled in this study. Of these 38 patients, 34 subsequently underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and four subsequently received coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Fourteen patients (36.8 %) were discharged from the hospital. The outcome was not favorable for those patients with deteriorating low output syndrome (LOS) and the development of leg ischemia, hemolysis and multiple organ failure during ECLS. Levels of creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatinine (Cr) and amylase after the patient had been put on ECLS and fluctuation of the cardiac index, blood pressure, arterial blood gas analysis and CK-MB and Cr levels during ECLS were indicators to switch from the ECLS to VAD. In the case of patients with no complication associated with ECLS, 4.6–5.6 days after initiation of ECLS was assumed to be the threshold to decide whether to switch from ECLS to VAD. Patients with AMI who suddenly developed refractory pulseless ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation without deteriorating LOS and who underwent successful PCI or CABG, and who prevented the complications associated with ECLS, showed a high probability of recovering with ECLS.

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We express our grateful thanks to the members of the Medical Equipment Center, Kitasato University Hospital, for their kind assistance and many helpful suggestions. We also express our sincere gratitude to our irreplaceable colleagues, Dr. Kazuyuki Osada, Dr. Motoi Takahashi, Dr. Youji Machida, Dr. Munehiro Hayashi, Dr. Junichi Nakahata, Dr. Takahiro Yamagishi, Dr. Kotaro Matuyama, Dr. Toshiya Aizaki, Dr. Keisuke Suzuki and Dr. Makoto Yoshida, for their contribution to this study. We honor the memory of Dr. Kazuyuki Osada.

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Correspondence to Naoyoshi Aoyama or Hiroshi Imai.

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Aoyama, N., Imai, H., Kurosawa, T. et al. Therapeutic strategy using extracorporeal life support, including appropriate indication, management, limitation and timing of switch to ventricular assist device in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J Artif Organs 17, 33–41 (2014).

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