Pattern Analysis and Applications

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 139–166 | Cite as

VPVC: verifiable progressive visual cryptography

  • Shivendra Shivani
  • Suneeta Agarwal
Theoretical Advances


In traditional k-out-of-n visual cryptography (VC), a secret image is visually decoded only if a subset of k or more shares are stacked together else nothing will be revealed. Progressive visual cryptography (PVC) scheme differs from the traditional VC where clarity and contrast of the decoded secret image are increased progressively with the number of stacked shares. Shares are most sensible objects since they carry secret; hence, verifying the reliability and authenticity of all shares before decoding the secret image prevents a participant from intentionally or unintentionally providing invalid data. This paper proposes a novel verifiable progressive visual cryptography approach with additional embedding capacity in each share which is used for self-embedding authentication data, copyright information along with confidential payload. These embedded informations in a share can be retrieved and verified at the time of any conflict. Proposed approach also eliminates many unnecessary encryption constraints of VC like pixel expansion, noise-like shares, explicit requirement of codebook and restriction on number of participants. Experiments show that in spite of having various credentials of participants, embedded in shares, the contrast of the decoded secret image remains 50 % without reducing the level of secrecy. By experiments, it is also confirmed that proposed approach can effectively localize the tampered region of the share.


Progressive visual cryptography Verifiable visual cryptography Secret sharing Meaningful shares Unexpanded shares Watermarking Authentication 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science and EngineeringNational Institute of Technology AllahabadAllahabadIndia

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