Optical Review

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 428–435 | Cite as

Luminescence imaging of biological subjects during X-ray irradiations lower energy than Cerenkov-light threshold

  • Seiichi Yamamoto
  • Shuji Koyama
  • Chiyo Yamauchi-Kawaura
  • Masataka Komori
Short Note

Abstract

It is commonly thought that UV or visible-light luminescence imaging of biological subjects during X-ray irradiation at the energy below 120 keV is impossible because the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov light. Contrary to this consensus, we found UV or visible-light luminescence imaging of the subjects were possible with X-ray irradiations of this energy range. We placed one of the biological subjects in a black box; visible-light luminescence images were measured with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera during X-ray irradiation at energy below 120 keV. We also conducted the imaging of air without subjects during irradiation of the same X-ray. The biological subjects emitted visible-light luminescence, and the imaging was possible with the irradiation of the X-ray below 120 keV. The luminescence images were observed in only the X-ray irradiated areas. Also air luminescence images could be obtained and the intensity of the luminescence measured from the images was proportionally increased with the exposure dose. UV or visible-light luminescence imaging of biological subjects was possible during X-ray irradiations lower energy than the Cerenkov-light threshold. The phenomenon was different from general X-ray fluorescence because wavelength of the luminescence is UV or visible-light. The luminescence imaging method is promising for estimating the irradiated area with X-ray, which could be used for interventional radiology (IVR). Also air luminescence imaging would be applied to the exposure dose distribution measurements for X-ray of diagnostic X-ray systems.

Keywords

Luminescence Imaging Biological subjects X-ray irradiations Cerenkov-light threshold 

References

  1. 1.
    Yamamoto, S., Toshito, T., Okumura, S., Komori, M.: Luminescence imaging of water during proton-beam irradiation for range estimation. Med. Phys. 42(11), 6498–6506 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yamamoto, S., Komori, M., Akagi, M., Yamashita, T., Koyama, S., Morishita, Y., Sekihara, E., Toshito, T.: Luminescence imaging of water during carbon-ion irradiation for range estimation. Med. Phys. 43, 2455–2463 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yamamoto, S., Komori, M., Koyama, S., Toshito, T.: Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation. Nucl. Instr. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A. 819(21), 6–13 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yamamoto, S., Koyama, S., Komori, M., Toshito, T.: Luminescence imaging of water during irradiation of X-ray photons lower energy than Cerenkov light threshold. Nucl. Inst. Methods Phys Res A. 832(1), 264–270 (2016)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Glaser, A.K., Davis, S.C., Voigt, W.H., Zhang, R., Pogue, B.W., Gladstone, D.J.: Projection imaging of photon beams using Cerenkov-excited fluorescence. Phys Med Biol. 58(3), 601–619 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang, R., Glaser, A.K., Gladstone, D.J., Fox, C.J., Pogue, B.W.: Superficial dosimetry imaging based on Čerenkov emission for external beam radiotherapy with megavoltage X-ray beam. Med. Phys. 40(10), 101914 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fahimian, B., Ceballos, A., Türkcan, S., Kapp, D.S., Pratx, G.: Seeing the invisible: direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation. Med Phys. 41(1), 010702 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Glaser, A.K., Voigt, W.H., Davis, S.C., Zhang, R., Gladstone, D.J., Pogue, B.W.: Three-dimensional Cerenkov tomography of energy deposition from ionizing radiation beams. Opt. Lett. 38(5), 634–636 (2013)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glaser, A.K., Zhang, R., Gladstone, D.J., Pogue, B.W.: Optical dosimetry of radiotherapy beams using Cherenkov radiation: the relationship between light emission and dose. Phys. Med. Biol. 59(14), 3789–3811 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Axelsson, J., Davis, S.C., Gladstone, D.J., Pogue, B.W.: Cerenkov emission induced by external beam radiation stimulates molecular fluorescence. Med. Phys. 38(7), 4127–4132 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glaser, A.K., Davis, S.C., McClatchy, D.M., Zhang, R., Pogue, B.W., Gladstone, D.J.: Projection imaging of photon beams by the Cerenkov effect. Med. Phys. 40(1), 012101 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Glaser, A.K., Zhang, R., Davis, S.C., Gladstone, D.J., Pogue, B.W.: Time-gated Cherenkov emission spectroscopy from linear accelerator irradiation of tissue phantoms. Opt. Lett. 37(7), 1193–1195 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Darafsheh, A., Taleei, R., Kassaee, A., Finlay, J.C.: The visible signal responsible for proton therapy dosimetry using bare optical fibers is not Cerenkov radiation. Med. Phys. 43(11), 5973–5980 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pratx, G., Carpenter, C.M., Sun, C., Xing, L.: X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 29(12), 1992–1999 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yamamoto, S., Toshito, T., Akagi, T., Yamashita, T., Komori, M.: Scintillation imaging of air during proton and carbon-ion beam irradiations. Nucl. Inst. Methods Phys. Res. A. 833(11), 115–149 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lamadie, F., Delmas, F., Mahe, C., Girones, P., LeGoaller, C., Costes, J.R.: Remote alpha imaging in nuclear installations: new results and prospects. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 52(6), 3035–3039 (2005)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sand, J., Ihantol, S., Peräjärvi, K., Nichol, A., Hrnecek, E., Toivonen, H., Toivonen, J.: Imaging of alpha emitters in a field environment. Nucl. Inst. Methods Phys. Res. A. 782(11), 13–19 (2015)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Optical Society of Japan 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seiichi Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Shuji Koyama
    • 1
  • Chiyo Yamauchi-Kawaura
    • 1
  • Masataka Komori
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiological and Medical Laboratory SciencesNagoya University Graduate School of MedicineNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations