Glare effect for three types of street lamps based on White LEDs


This study is aimed to assess the glare effect from LED-based street lamps with three general optical designs, which are cluster LEDs with a single lens, a LED array accompany with a lens array, and a tilted LED array, respectively. Observation conditions were simulated based on various locations and viewing axes. Equivalent luminance calculations were used to reveal the glare levels of the three designs. The age effect for the calculated equivalent luminance was also examined for human eyes of people at the age of 40 or 60. The results demonstrate that among the three design types, a LED array accompany with a lens array causes relatively smaller glare for most viewing conditions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1)

    X. Long, R. Liao, and J. Zhou: IET Optoelectron. 3 (2009) 40.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2)

    Z. Feng, Y. Luo, and Y. Han: Opt. Express 18 (2010) 22020.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3)

    T. Taguchi: J. Light Visual Environ. 27 (2003) 131.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4)

    T. Whitaker, LEDs Mag. (2007) p. 42.

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5)

    M. Iwata and S. Uchida: J. Light Visual Environ. 35 (2011) 42.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6)

    A. M. Ylinen, L. Tähkämö, M. Puolakka, and L. Halonen: J. Illum. Eng. Soc. North Am. 8 (2011) 9.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7)

    NSI/IES RP-8-1983 (1983).

  8. 8)

    P. W. Cobb: Am. J. Physiol. 29 (1911) 76.

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9)

    D. D. Koch: J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 15 (1989) 158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10)

    W. S. Stiles: Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 104 (1929) 322.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11)

    T. J. T. P. Van Den Berg: Doc. Ophthalmol. 78 (1991) 177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12)

    CIE Publication 115 (1995).

  13. 13)

    CIE Publication 117 (1995).

  14. 14)

    Y.-C. Lo, K.-T. Huang, X.-H. Lee, and C.-C. Sun: Microelectron. Reliab. 52 (2012) 889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15)

    P. O. Vaccaro, A. Vorobev, N. Dharmarasu, T. Fleischmann, J. M. Zanardi Ocampo, S. Saravanan, K. Kubota, and T. Aida: Microelectron. J. 34 (2003) 355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16)

    J. Jiang, S. To, W. B. Lee, and B. Cheung: Optik 121 (2010) 1761.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17)

    S. Wang, K. Wang, F. Chen, and S. Liu: Opt. Express 19 (2011) A716.

    ADS  Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  18. 18)

    X.-H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C.-C. Sun: Opt. Express 21 (2013) 10612.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19)

    J. J. Vos and T. J. T. P. van den Berg: CIE Collect. 135 (1999) 1.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ching-Cherng Sun.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sun, C., Jiang, C., Chen, Y. et al. Glare effect for three types of street lamps based on White LEDs. OPT REV 21, 215–219 (2014).

Download citation


  • LED-based street lamps
  • LED arrays
  • direct luminance
  • veiling luminance