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Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 429–437 | Cite as

A tracer test to determine a hydraulic connection between the Lauchert and Danube karst catchments (Swabian Alb, Germany)

  • Paul Knöll
  • Traugott Scheytt
Report

Abstract

A dye tracer experiment was conducted between the rivers Lauchert and Danube near Sigmaringen (Swabian Alb, southern Germany). After a flood event in the River Lauchert, it was suspected that flood water infiltrated into the karst system and drained towards springs in the Danube Valley. A potential connection of the two rivers is provided by the margin of a tectonic graben crossing the valleys. The aim of the tracer experiment was to gain insight into the dominant groundwater flow direction as well as to study a possible preferential connection between the Lauchert surface catchment area and springs in the Danube Valley. After introducing sodium-fluorescein into the unsaturated zone, six springs in the Danube Valley and the River Lauchert itself were observed. Tracer breakthrough at three springs showed that these springs are fed by groundwater originating in the Lauchert surface catchment. Adjacent springs were not affected by the experiment, indicating a rather sharp divide between separate spring catchments. Analyses of tracer breakthrough curves suggest that springs with a tracer occurrence are fed by the same conduit system. It was possible to show that spring catchments in Sigmaringen reach significantly into the Lauchert surface catchment. As a consequence, a drinking-water supplier has changed its supply strategy. The results also help to explain significant differences between flood damage in the central and lower courses of the River Lauchert.

Keywords

Groundwater flow Uranine Groundwater/surface-water relations Karst Germany 

Un essai de traçage pour déterminer une connexion hydraulique entre les bassins karstiques de Lauchert et du Danube (Jura Souabe, Allemagne)

Résumé

Un traçage colorimétrique a été entrepris entre la rivière Lauchert et le fleuve Danube près de Sigmaringen (Jura Souabe, Sud de l’Allemagne). A la suite d’un épisode de crue de la rivière Lauchert, il a été suspecté que l’eau d’inondation se soit infiltrée dans le système karstique et se soit écoulée vers des exutoires dans la vallée de Danube. Une connexion potentielle des deux fleuves est. rendue possible par l’intermédiaire des bordures d’un graben tectonique traversant les vallées. Le but de l’expérience de traçage était d’avoir une meilleure compréhension du sens d’écoulement dominant des eaux souterraines autant que d’étudier une possible connexion préférentielle entre le bassin versant de la rivière Lauchert et des sources dans la vallée de Danube. Après introduction de fluorescéine de sodium dans la zone non saturée, six sources dans la vallée du Danube et la rivière Lauchert elle-même ont été suivies. La courbe de restitution du traceur sur trois sources a prouvé que ces sources sont alimentées par des eaux souterraines provenant du bassin versant de la rivière Lauchert. Des sources voisines n’ont pas été affectées par l’expérience, indiquant qu’une limite plutôt nette divise leurs bassins. Les analyses des courbes de restitution du traceur suggèrent que des sources montrant la présence de traceur sont alimentées par le même système de conduits. Il a été possible de prouver que les bassins des sources à Sigmaringen atteignent de manière significative le bassin versant de surface de la rivière Lauchert. Cela a amené un fournisseur d’eau potable à changer sa stratégie d’approvisionnement. Les résultats aident également à expliquer des différences significatives entre les dommages d’inondation dans les cours centraux et inférieurs de la rivière Lauchert.

Una prueba de trazabilidad para determinar una conexión hidráulica entre las cuencas kársticas de Lauchert y Danubio (Swabian Alb, Alemania)

Resumen

Se llevó a cabo un experimento con trazadores de colorantes entre los ríos Lauchert y Danubio, cerca de Sigmaringen (Swabian Alb, sur de Alemania). Tras una inundación en el río Lauchert, se sospechó que el agua de las inundaciones se infiltraba en el sistema kárstico y se drenaba hacia manantiales en el valle del Danubio. Una conexión potencial de los dos ríos es proporcionada por el margen de un graben tectónico que cruza los valles. El objetivo del experimento del trazador era conocer mejor la dirección dominante del flujo de agua subterránea, así como estudiar una posible conexión preferencial entre la cuenca de Lauchert y los manantiales del valle del Danubio. Después de introducir la fluoresceína de sodio en la zona no saturada, se observaron seis manantiales en el valle del Danubio y el río Lauchert. El avance de los trazadores en los tres manantiales demostró que estos manantiales están alimentados por aguas subterráneas originadas en la cuenca de Lauchert. Los manantiales adyacentes no fueron afectados por el experimento, lo que indica una división bastante aguda entre las cuencas de los manantiales. Los análisis de las curvas de avance del trazador sugieren que los manantiales en un evento son alimentados por el mismo sistema de conductos. Se pudo demostrar que las cuencas de los manantiales en Sigmaringen alcanzan significativamente la cuenca de Lauchert. Como consecuencia, un proveedor de agua potable ha cambiado su estrategia de suministro. Los resultados también ayudan a explicar diferencias significativas entre los daños causados por las inundaciones en los cursos centrales e inferiores del Lauchert.

进行示踪实验确定(德国Swabian Alb地区)Lauchert汇水区与Danube岩溶汇水区之间的水力联系

摘要

在(德国南部Swabian Alb地区)Sigmaringen 附近Lauchert河与Danube河之间流进行了染料示踪实验。在Lauchert河一次洪水事件之后,怀疑洪水渗入到了岩溶系统,并向Danube河谷的泉排水。通过贯穿河谷的构造地堑边缘两条河流存在着潜在的联系。示踪实验的目的就是了解主要地下水流的 方向以及研究Lauchert地表汇水区与Danube河谷的泉之间可能的优先联系。在非饱和带使用荧光素钠之后,对Danube河谷六个泉及Lauchert河本身进行了观测。三个泉的示踪突破显示,这些泉由来源于Lauchert地表汇水区的地下水补给。毗邻的泉没有收到实验的影响,表明,两个分开的泉汇水区之间有一个相当明显的分水岭。示踪突破曲线分析表明,出现示踪剂的泉由同一管道补给。有可能显示Sigmaringen的泉汇水区很大一部分达到了Lauchert地表汇水区。因此,饮用水供应者改变了其供水策略。结果还有助于解释Lauchert中游洪水损害和下游河道洪水损害中间的重要差别。

Um teste com traçador para determinar a conexão hidráulica entre as captações dos carstes de Lauchert e Danúbio (Swabian Alb, Alemanha)

Resumo

Um experimento com traçador corante foi realizado entre os rios Lauchert e Danúbio perto de Sigmaringen (Swabian Alb, sul da Alemanha). Após uma inundação ocorrida no Rio Lauchert, suspeitou-se que que a águas da enchente se infiltraram no sistema cárstico e foram drenadas em direção às nascentes do vale do Danúbio. A potencial conexão entre os dois rios é dada pela margem de um graben tectônico que cruza os vales. A intenção do experimento com o traçador foi avançar o conhecimento em relação ao fluxo dominante das água subterrâneas, assim como estudar uma possível conexão preferencial entre a área de captação superficial do Lauchert e nascentes no vale do Danúbio. Após a injeção de fluoresceína sódica na zona não-saturada, foram monitoradas seis nascentes no vale do Danúbio e o mesmo Rio Lauchert. O avanço do traçador em três nascentes mostrou que essas nascentes são abastecidas pelas águas subterrâneas originadas a partir da captação superficial do Rio Lauchert. Nascentes adjacentes não foram afetadas pelo experimento, indicando uma separação brusca entre captações de diferentes nascentes. A análise das curvas de evolução do traçador sugere que nascentes com ocorrência do traçador são alimentadas pelo mesmo sistema de conduto. Foi possível mostrar que as captações de nascentes em Sigmaringen atingem significativamente a bacia do Lauchert. Como consequência um fornecedor de água mudou a sua estratégia de abastecimento. Os resultados também ajudam a explicar diferenças significativas entre os danos causados por inundações em porções médias e baixas do curso do Rio Lauchert.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Mr. Kanjar and Mr. Horender for granting us access to the properties. Furthermore we are thankful for the support of Mr. Wiest from Stadtwerke Sigmaringen and Peter Knaus from the water supply in Hermentingen. We are especially grateful that Adalbert Mattes from Landratsamt Sigmaringen stayed calm considering the first reactions to the experiment. We also wish to thank the students who supported the field work. The study was conducted in the context of the project “Karst-Grundwasser und Hydrologie”, funded by the state of Baden Württemberg.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Applied GeosciencesTechnische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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