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Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias

Evaluation des utilisateurs des eaux souterraines pour l’agriculture en Iran: un biais environnemental culturel

Evaluación de los usuarios del agua subterránea agrícola en Irán: un sesgo ambiental cultural

伊朗农业地下水用户评价:文化环境的偏见

Avaliação dos usuários agrícolas de águas subterrâneas no Irã: uma tendência ambiental cultural

Abstract

Many environmental problems are rooted in human behavior. This study aimed to explore the causal effect of cultural environmental bias on ‘sustainable behavior’ among agricultural groundwater users in Fars province, Iran, according to Klockner’s comprehensive model. A survey-based research project was conducted to gathering data on the paradigm of environmental psychology. The sample included agricultural groundwater users (n = 296) who were selected at random within a structured sampling regime involving study areas that represent three (higher, medium and lower) bounds of the agricultural-groundwater-vulnerability spectrum. Results showed that the “environment as ductile (EnAD)” variable was a strong determinant of sustainable behavior as it related to groundwater use, and that EnAE had the highest causal effect on the behavior of agricultural groundwater users. The adjusted model explained 41% variance of “groundwater sustainable behavior”. Based on the results, the groundwater sustainable behaviors of agricultural groundwater users were found to be affected by personal and subjective norm variables and that they are influenced by casual effects of the “environment as ductile (EnAD)” variable. The conclusions reflect the Fars agricultural groundwater users’ attitude or worldview on groundwater as an unrecoverable resource; thus, it is necessary that scientific disciplines like hydrogeology and psycho-sociology be considered together in a comprehensive approach for every groundwater study.

Résumé

De nombreux problèmes environnementaux sont enracinés dans le comportement humain. Cette étude a pour objectif d’explorer l’effet de causalité du biais environnemental culturel sur le comportement durable parmi les utilisateurs des eaux souterraines pour l’agriculture dans la province de Fars en Iran, selon le modèle global de Klockner. Un projet de recherche axé sur des enquêtes a été réalisé afin de recueillir des données sur le paradigme de la psychologie de l’environnement. L’échantillon comprenait des utilisateurs d’eau souterraine pour l’agriculture (n = 296) qui ont été sélectionnés au hasard au sein d’un mode d’échantillonnage structuré impliquant des zones d’étude qui représentent trois bornes (supérieures, moyennes et inférieures) du spectre de vulnérabilité agriculture-eaux souterraines. Les résultats ont montré que la variable « environnement extensible (EnE) » était un déterminant fort du comportement durable en ce qui concerne l’utilisation des eaux souterraines, et que l’EnE avait le plus haut effet causal sur le comportement des utilisateurs d’eaux souterraines pour l’agriculture. Le modèle ajusté a expliqué une variance de 41% du « comportement durable des eaux souterraines ». Sur la base des résultats, les comportements durables des eaux souterraines des utilisateurs de l’eau souterraine pour l’agriculture ont été affectés par des variables de la norme personnelle et subjective et qu’ils sont influencés par les effets de causalité de la variable « environnement extensible (EnE)». Les conclusions reflètent le comportement des usagers des eaux souterraines à des fins agricoles de Fars, ou la vision globale sur les eaux souterraines en tant que ressource irrécupérable; ainsi, il est. donc nécessaire que les disciplines scientifiques, comme l’hydrogéologie et la psycho-sociologie soient considérées ensemble dans une approche globale pour chaque étude hydrogéologique.

Resumen

Muchos problemas ambientales están enraizados en el comportamiento humano. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar el efecto causal del sesgo ambiental cultural sobre el “comportamiento sostenible” entre los usuarios de agua subterránea agrícola en la provincia de Fars, Irán, según el modelo integral de Klockner. Se llevó a cabo un proyecto de investigación basado en relevamientos para reunir datos sobre el paradigma de la psicología ambiental. La muestra incluyó a usuarios de agua subterránea agrícola (n = 296) que fueron seleccionados al azar dentro de un esquema de muestreo estructurado que incluía áreas de estudio que representan tres límites (más altos, medios y más bajos) del espectro de vulnerabilidad del agua subterránea agrícola. Los resultados mostraron que la variable “fragilidad ambiental” (EnAE) era un fuerte determinante del comportamiento sostenible en relación con el uso del agua subterránea y que el EnAE tenía el mayor efecto causal en el comportamiento de los usuarios de las aguas subterráneas agrícolas. El modelo ajustado explicó una variación del 41% del “comportamiento sostenible del agua subterránea”. Con base en los resultados, se observó que las conductas sostenibles de las aguas subterráneas de los usuarios agrícolas estaban afectadas por variables personales y subjetivas y que estaban influenciadas por los efectos ocasionales de la variable “fragilidad ambiental (EnAD)”. Las conclusiones reflejan la actitud de los usuarios de las aguas subterráneas agrícolas de Fars o su visión del mundo sobre las aguas subterráneas como un recurso irrecuperable; Por lo tanto, es necesario que las disciplinas científicas como la hidrogeología y la psico-sociología sean consideradas juntas en un enfoque integral para cada estudio de aguas subterráneas.

摘要

许多环境问题植根于人类行为。本研究目的就是根据Klockner’s综合模型探索文化环境偏见对伊朗Fars省农业地下水用户“持续的行为”的影响。进行了基于调查的研究项目,获取了环境心理学范例的数据。样品包括涉及到的研究区内结构采样体制随机选取的农业地下水用户(n = 296),这些研究区代表三个(高、中、低)农业-地下水-脆弱性光谱段。结果显示,“环境作为可塑的”的变量是持续行为很强的决定因素,因为它与地下水利用相关,环境可塑性对于农业地下水用户的行为有最大的影响。调整过的模型解释了“地下水持续行为”41%的变量。根据研究结果,发现农业地下水用户的地下水持续行为受到个人的和主观标准变量的影响,并且发现,也受到“环境作为可塑性”变量的影响。结论反映了Fars省农业地下水用户对地下水作为不可恢复资源的态度和世界观,因此,有必要在地下水研究的综合方法中,把学科诸如水文地质学和社会心理学结合一起考虑。

Resumo

Muitos problemas ambientais estão enraizados no comportamento humano. Este estudo visou explorar o efeito causal da tendência cultural ambiental sobre “comportamentos sustentáveis” entre usuários agrícolas de aguas subterrâneas na província de Fars, Irã, de acordo com o modelo detalhado de Klockner. Um projeto de investigação à base de questionários foi realizado para recolher dados sobre o paradigma de psicologia ambiental. A amostra incluiu usuários de águas subterrâneas (n = 296) escolhidos de forma aleatória num regime de amostragem estruturado envolvendo áreas de estudo que representam três (elevado, médio e baixo) gamas do espectro agricultura-água subterrânea-vulnerabilidade. Resultados demonstraram que a variável “ambiente como flexível (ACF)” é um forte determinante de comportamentos sustentáveis quando estes estão ligados ao uso de águas subterrâneas, e que ACF tem o maior efeito causal no comportamento de usuários agrícolas de águas subterrâneas. O modelo ajustado explicou 41% da variância de ‘comportamentos para sustentabilidade das águas subterrâneas’. Com base nos resultados, determinou-se que os comportamentos para a sustentabilidade das águas subterrâneas de usuários agrícolas de águas subterrâneas são afetados por variáveis normativas pessoais e subjetivas e que estes são influenciáveis por efeitos causais da variável “ambiente como flexível (ACF)”. As conclusões refletem a atitude e visão do mundo dos usuários agrícolas de águas subterrâneas de Fars em como a água subterrânea é um recurso irrecuperável; assim, é necessário que disciplinas científicas como a hidrogeologia e psicossociologia sejam consideradas em conjunto numa abordagem abrangente em quaisquer estudos de águas subterrâneas.

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Acknowledgements

We acknowledge Dr. Kurosh Rezaei-Moghaddam for commenting and the contributions of the reviewers and editors too.

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Salehi, S., Chizari, M., Sadighi, H. et al. Assessment of agricultural groundwater users in Iran: a cultural environmental bias. Hydrogeol J 26, 285–295 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-017-1634-9

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Keywords

  • Groundwater sustainable behavior
  • Cultural environmental bias
  • Socio-economic aspects
  • Agriculture
  • Iran