Expanding groundwater datasets collected by automated sensors, and improved groundwater databases, have caused a rapid increase in calibration data available for groundwater modeling projects. Improved methods of subsurface characterization have increased the need for model complexity to represent geological and hydrogeological interpretations. The larger calibration datasets and the need for meaningful predictive uncertainty analysis have both increased the degree of parameterization necessary during model calibration. Due to these competing demands, modern groundwater modeling efforts require a massive degree of parallelization in order to remain computationally tractable. A methodology for the calibration of highly parameterized, computationally expensive models using the Amazon EC2 cloud computing service is presented. The calibration of a regional-scale model of groundwater flow in Alberta, Canada, is provided as an example. The model covers a 30,865-km2 domain and includes 28 hydrostratigraphic units. Aquifer properties were calibrated to more than 1,500 static hydraulic head measurements and 10 years of measurements during industrial groundwater use. Three regionally extensive aquifers were parameterized (with spatially variable hydraulic conductivity fields), as was the aerial recharge boundary condition, leading to 450 adjustable parameters in total. The PEST-based model calibration was parallelized on up to 250 computing nodes located on Amazon’s EC2 servers.