A geochemical and stable isotope investigation of groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia

Investigation des interactions entre les eaux de surface et les eaux souterraines dans le bassin de Velenje, Slovénie, par la géochimie et les isotopes stables de l’eau

Una investigación geoquímica y de isótopos estables de la interacción agua superficial–agua subterránea en la Velenje Basin, Eslovenia

斯洛文尼亚Velenje盆地地下水–地表水相互作用地球化学和稳定同位素调查

Uma investigação geoquímica e de isótopos estáveis das interações água subterrânea–água superficial na Bacia Velenje, na Eslóvénia

Geokemične in izotopske raziskave interakcij med podzemnimi in površinskimi vodami v Velenjskem bazenu, Slovenija

Abstract

The geochemical and isotopic composition of surface waters and groundwater in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia, was investigated seasonally to determine the relationship between major aquifers and surface waters, water–rock reactions, relative ages of groundwater, and biogeochemical processes. Groundwater in the Triassic aquifer is dominated by HCO3 , Ca2+, Mg2+ and δ13CDIC indicating degradation of soil organic matter and dissolution of carbonate minerals, similar to surface waters. In addition, groundwater in the Triassic aquifer has δ18O and δD values that plot near surface waters on the local and global meteoric water lines, and detectable tritium, likely reflecting recent (<50 years) recharge. In contrast, groundwater in the Pliocene aquifers is enriched in Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Si, and has high alkalinity and δ13CDIC values, with low SO4 2– and NO3 concentrations. These waters have likely been influenced by sulfate reduction and microbial methanogenesis associated with coal seams and dissolution of feldspars and Mg-rich clay minerals. Pliocene aquifer waters are also depleted in 18O and 2H, and have 3H concentrations near the detection limit, suggesting these waters are older, had a different recharge source, and have not mixed extensively with groundwater in the Triassic aquifer.

Résumé

La composition géochimique et isotopique de l’eau de surface et de l’eau souterraine dans le bassin de Velenje en Slovénie a été étudiée en fonction des saisons pour déterminer la relation entre les aquifèreres principaux et les eaux de surface, les interactions eau–roche, l’âge relatif de l’eau et les processus biogéochimiques. L’eau souterraine dans l’aquifère triasique est dominée par HCO3 , Ca2+, Mg2+ and δ13CDIC qui indiquent que la dégradation de la matière organique du sol et la dissolution des carbonates est similaire à celle de l’eau de surface. En outre, l’eau souterraine de l’aquifère triasique a des valeurs en δ18O et δD qui se positionnent près des eaux de surface sur les droites des eaux météoriques globale et locale, et du tritium détectable qui marque probablement une recharge récente (<50 ans). Au contraire, l’eau souterraine des aquifères pliocènes est enrichie en Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, et Si, et a une alcalinité et des valeurs de δ13CDIC élevées, ainsi que des concentrations faibles en SO4 2– et NO3 . Ces eaux ont probablement été influencées par la réduction des sulfates et la méthanogénèse microbienne associée aux veines de charbon et à la dissolution des feldspaths et minéraux magnésiens argileux. Les eaux de l’aquifère pliocène sont également appauvries en 18O et 2H, et ont des concentrations en 3H proches de la limite de détection, ce qui suggère que ces eaux sont plus anciennes, ont une recharge d’origine différente et n’ont pas été largement mélangée avec les eaux de l’aquifère triasique.

Resumen

Las composición geoquímica e isotópica del agua superficial y el agua subterránea en la Velenje Basin, Eslovenia, fue investigada estacionalmente para determinar la relación entre los acuíferos principales y el agua superficial, las reacciones agua – roca, las edades relativas del agua subterránea y los procesos biogeoquímicos. El agua subterránea en el acuífero Triásico es dominada por HCO3 , Ca2+, Mg2+ y δ13CDIC indicando una degradación de la materia orgánica del suelo y la disolución de minerales carbonáticos, similares a las aguas superficiales. Además, el agua subterránea en el acuífero Triásico tiene valores de δ18O y δD que se ubican cerca de las aguas superficiales y de la línea de agua meteórica local y global, y el tritio detectable, reflejando probablemente una recarga reciente (<50 años). En contraste, el agua subterránea en los acuíferos Pliocenos está enriquecida en Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, y Si,y tiene altos valores de alcalinidad y de δ13CDIC, con bajas concentraciones de SO4 2– y NO3 . Estas aguas han sido probablemente influenciadas por una reducción de sulfatos y una metanogenesis microbiana asociadas con capas de carbón y disolución de feldespatos y minerales de arcillas ricos en Mg. Las aguas de acuíferos del Plioceno están también empobrecidas en 18O y 2H, y tienen concentraciones de 3H cerca del límite de detección, lo que sugiere que estas aguas son más viejas, tienen una fuente diferente de recarga, y no se han mezclado extensivamente con el agua subterránea del acuífero Triásico.

摘要

对斯洛文尼亚Velenje盆地-地表水和地下水地球化学和同位素组分进行了周期性调查,以确定主要含水层和地表水体之间的关系、水-岩作用、地下水的相对年龄及生物地球化学过程。三叠纪含水层中的 水主要受HCO3 , Ca2+, Mg2+ 及 δ13CDIC控制,表明土壤有机物质的退化和碳酸盐矿物的溶解,类似于地表水体。另外,三叠纪含水层中地下水中的δ18O and δD值在局部和全球大气水线上地表水体附近,地下水中也有可检出的氚,可能反映出最近(小于50年)有补给。与此相反,上新世含水层中的地下水富含Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+, 及 Si, 具有很高的碱度和δ13CDIC v 值,但SO4 2– and NO3 c 含量低。这些水可能受到过与煤层和长石及富镁粘土矿物相关的硫酸盐还原和微生物甲烷生成的影响。上新世含水层水也缺少18O 和 2H, 3H含量接近检出限,表明这些水较老,有不同的补给源,没有与三叠纪含水层中的水广泛混合。

Resumo

A composição geoquímica e isotópica das águas superficiais e da água subterrânea na Bacia de Velenje, na Eslovénia, foi investigada sazonalmente, a fim de determinar a relação entre os aquíferos principais e as águas superficiais, as reações água–rocha, as idades relativas da água subterrânea e os processos biogeoquímicos. A água subterrânea no aquífero Triássico é dominada por HCO3 , Ca2+, Mg2+ e δ13CDIC, indicando degradação da matéria orgânica do solo e dissolução dos minerais carbonatados, similarmente às águas superficiais. Em adição, a água subterrânea do aquífero Triássico tem valores de δ18O e δD que se localizam próximos dos das águas superficiais locais e da linha das águas meteóricas globais, e do trítio detetável, refletindo presumivelmente recarga recente (<50 anos). Em contraste, a água subterrânea dos aquíferos Pliocénicos é enriquecida em Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+ e Si e apresenta valores de alcalinidade e de δ13CDIC elevados, com baixas concentrações de SO4 2– e NO3 . Estas águas são provavelmente influenciadas pela redução de sulfatos e pela metanogénese microbiana associada a camadas de carvão e dissolução de feldspatos e de minerais argilosos ricos em Mg. As águas dos aquíferos Pliocénicos são também deficitárias em 18O e 2H, e têm concentrações de 3H próximas dos limites de deteção, sugerindo que estas águas são mais antigas, apresentam uma fonte de recarga diferente, e não se têm misturado extensivamente com a água subterrânea do aquífero Triássico.

Povzetek

Geokemično in izotopsko sestavo površinskih in podzemnih vod v Velenjskem bazenu, Slovenija smo sezonsko raziskali za določitev interakcij med glavnimi vodonosniki in površinskimi vodami, reakcij med vodo-kamnino, relativnimi starostmi vod in biogeokemijskimi procesi. V podzemni vodi Triasnega vodonosnika prevladuje HCO3 , Ca2+, Mg2+ in δ13CDIC, kar kaže na razgradnjo preperinske organske snovi in raztapljanje karbonatnih mineralov, podobno kot površinske vode. Dodatno, podzemna voda v Triasnih vodonosnikih ima vrednosti δ18O in δD, ki se nahajajo blizu lokalne in globalne meteorne premice in meje zaznavnosti za tricij, kar nakazuje na recentno (<50 years) napajanje. Kontrastno, so podzemne vode v Pliocenskih vodonosnikih obogatene z Mg2+, Na+, Ca2+, K+ in Si in imajo visoko alkalnost in δ13CDIC vrednosti, z nizko koncentracijo SO4 2– in NO3 . Te vode so podvržene sulfatni redukciji in mikrobni metanogenezi, ki je povezana s premogovimi plastmi in raztapljanjem glinencev in Mg-bogatih mineralov. Pliocenske podzemne vode so osiromašene z 18O in 2H in imajo 3H koncentracije blizu meje detekcije, kar kaže da so te vode starejše, imajo drug vir napajanja in se ne mešajo intenzivno s podzemno vodo Triasnega vodonosnika.

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Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by the projects Z1-2052 and L1-5451 funded by the Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) and the Velenje coalmine D.D. The authors are grateful to Mr. Igor Medved, Mr. Stojan Žigon and Mr. Robert Lah for technical support and assistance with field sampling and analytical help. The authors are grateful to Mrs. Barbara Svetek for 3H measurements.

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Kanduč, T., Grassa, F., McIntosh, J. et al. A geochemical and stable isotope investigation of groundwater/surface-water interactions in the Velenje Basin, Slovenia. Hydrogeol J 22, 971–984 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-014-1103-7

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Keywords

  • Hydrogeochemistry
  • Stable isotopes
  • Groundwater/surface-water relations
  • Groundwater age
  • Slovenia