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Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow

Comparaison de modèles d’aquifères karstiques avec et sans conduits discrets

Comparación de un modelo de agua subterránea en karst con y sin conductos discretos de flujo

有无分立通道水流的岩溶地下水模型对比

Comparação de um modelo de águas subterrâneas de um carso com e sem fluxo de conduta discreto

Abstract

Karst aquifers exhibit a dual flow system characterized by interacting conduit and matrix domains. This study evaluated the coupled continuum pipe-flow framework for modeling karst groundwater flow in the Madison aquifer of western South Dakota (USA). Coupled conduit and matrix flow was simulated within a regional finite-difference model over a 10-year transient period. An existing equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was modified to include major conduit networks whose locations were constrained by dye-tracing data and environmental tracer analysis. Model calibration data included measured hydraulic heads at observation wells and estimates of discharge at four karst springs. Relative to the EPM model, the match to observation well hydraulic heads was substantially improved with the addition of conduits. The inclusion of conduit flow allowed for a simpler hydraulic conductivity distribution in the matrix continuum. Two of the high-conductivity zones in the EPM model, which were required to indirectly simulate the effects of conduits, were eliminated from the new model. This work demonstrates the utility of the coupled continuum pipe-flow method and illustrates how karst aquifer model parameterization is dependent on the physical processes that are simulated.

Resumé

Des aquifères karstiques présentent un système d’écoulement double caractérisé par l’interaction de domaines de conduits et de domaines matriciels. Cette étude examine le cadre du couple écoulements par conduits-écoulement en continuum pour modéliser un écoulement karstique dans l’aquifère Madison de l’Ouest du Dakota du Sud (USA). L’écoulement couplé par conduit et matrice est simulé dans un modèle régional aux différences finies sur une période de 10 ans. Un modèle de milieu poreux équivalent existant a été modifié pour inclure les principaux réseaux de conduits dont la localisation ont été imposés par des données de traçage coloré et analyse de traceurs environnementaux. Les données de calage du modèle incluent les niveaux piézométriques mesurés dans les puits d’observation et estimation de la décharge de quatre sources karstiques. Relativement au modèle milieu poreux équivalent, la correspondance avec les niveaux piézométriques observés a été améliorée de façon substantielle ave l’addition des conduits. L’inclusion de conduits a permis une distribution de la conductivité hydraulique plus simple dans le continuum matriciel. Deux des zones de grande conductivité dans le modèle milieu poreux équivalent, qui étaient nécessaires pour simuler de façon indirecte les effets des conduits, ont été éliminées du nouveau modèle. Ce travail démontre l’utilité de la méthode de couplage écoulement en continuum-écoulement par conduits et illustre la dépendance du paramétrage d’un module aquifère karstique aux processus physiques simulés.

Resumen

Los acuíferos kársticos exhiben un sistema de flujo dual caracterizado por conductos interactivos y dominios de la matriz. Este estudio evaluó el marco continuo acoplado conducto - flujo para modelar el flujo de agua subterránea en karst en el acuífero Madison del oeste de Dakota del Sur (EEUU). El flujo del conducto acoplado y la matriz fue simulado dentro de un modelo regional de diferencias finitas sobre un período de transición de 10 años. Se modificó un modelo equivalente de medio poroso (EPM) ya existente para incluir las principales redes de conductos cuyas ubicaciones fueron limitadas por datos de trazadores colorantes y análisis de trazadores ambientales. Los datos de calibración del modelo incluyeron mediciones de las cargas hidráulicas en los pozos de observación y estimaciones de la descarga de cuatro manantiales kársticos. En relación con el modelo EPM, el cotejo de las cargas del pozo de observación fue sustancialmente mejorado con la adición de conductos. La inclusión del flujo de conducto permitió una distribución más simple de la conductividad hidráulica en el continuo de la matriz. Dos de las zonas de alta conductividad hidráulica en el modelo EPM, que fueron requeridas para simular indirectamente los efectos de los conductos, fueron eliminadas del nuevo modelo. Este trabajo demuestra la utilidad del método del acoplamiento continuo en el conducto – flujo e ilustra como la parametrización del modelo del acuífero kárstico depende de los procesos físicos que son simulados.

摘要

岩溶含水层展示了具有相互制约的通道和基质领域特征的的双重水流系统。本 研究评估了用于模拟美国南达科卡州Madison 含水层岩溶地下水流耦合的连续体管流框架。在区域有限差分模型内模拟了10 年过度周期的耦合的通道和基质水流。对已有等同的多孔介质模型进行了改良, 包括了主要通道网, 其位置受到染料示踪资料和环境示踪分析的限制。模型校准包括观测井处测量的水头资料及四个岩溶泉排泄量的估算值。相对于已有的等同多孔介质模型, 通过 增加管道的长度, 与观测井水头相匹配的情况大幅改进。包含通道水流可以得到基质连续体内简单的水力导水系数分布情况。已有等同的多孔介质模型钟的两个高导水率带需要间接模拟通道的影响, 这两个高导水率带在新的模型中被剔除。这项工作展示了耦合连续体管流方法的实用性, 描述了岩溶含水层模型参数化怎样取决于被模拟的物理过程。

Resumo

Os aquíferos cársicos exibem um sistema de escoamento dual caraterizado por domínios de conduta e de matriz que interagem entre si. Este estudo avaliou a abordagem acoplada contínuo tubo de fluxo para modelar o fluxo cársico de águas subterrâneas no aquífero Madison de Dakota do Sul ocidental (EUA). O fluxo acoplado de conduta e de matriz foi simulado dentro de um modelo de diferenças finitas regional para um período transitório de 10 anos. Modificou-se um modelo existente de meio poroso equivalente (MPE) para incluir as redes de condutas maiores, cujas localizações foram constrangidas por dados de traçadores corantes e análise de traçadores ambientais. Os dados de calibração do modelo incluíram potenciais hidráulicos medidos em poços de observação e estimativas da descarga de quatro nascentes cársicas. Relativamente ao modelo do MPE, o ajustamento às observações dos potenciais hidráulicos nos poços foi substancialmente melhorado com a adição de condutas. A inclusão do fluxo por condutas permitiu uma distribuição mais simples das condutividades hidráulicas no contínuo da matriz. Duas das zonas de alta condutividade no modelo do MPE que foram necessárias para simular indiretamente o efeito das condutas foram eliminadas do novo modelo. Este trabalho demonstra a utilidade do método acoplado contínuo tubo de fluxo e ilustra como a parametrização do modelo de aquífero cársico depende dos processos físicos que são simulados.

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Acknowledgements

This work was partially funded by a grant from the University Consortium for Field-Focused Groundwater Contamination Research. We thank Barclay Shoemaker at the US Geological Survey and two anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions.

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Correspondence to Michael J. Ronayne.

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Saller, S.P., Ronayne, M.J. & Long, A.J. Comparison of a karst groundwater model with and without discrete conduit flow. Hydrogeol J 21, 1555–1566 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-013-1036-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-013-1036-6

Keywords

  • Karst
  • Numerical modeling
  • Pipe flow
  • Conduit-matrix interaction
  • USA