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Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques

Evaluation des eaux souterraines à Salboni Block, Bengale Occidental (Inde), en utilisant la télédétection, les systèmes d’information géographique et les techniques d’analyse décisionnelle multi-critères

Evaluación de aguas subterráneas en Salboni Block, Bengala occidental (India) usando técnicas de sensoramiento remoto, sistema de información geográfica y análisis multicriterio de decisión

利用遥感、地理信息系统和多准则决策分析方法对西孟加拉 (印度) Salboni区进行地下水评价

Avaliação das águas subterrâneas em Salboni Block, Bengala Ocidental (Índia), utilizando a detecção remota, um sistema de informação geográfica e técnicas de análise de decisão multicritério

Abstract

An approach is presented for the evaluation of groundwater potential using remote sensing, geographic information system, geoelectrical, and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. The approach divides the available hydrologic and hydrogeologic data into two groups, exogenous (hydrologic) and endogenous (subsurface). A case study in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India), uses six thematic layers of exogenous parameters and four thematic layers of endogenous parameters. These thematic layers and their features were assigned suitable weights which were normalized by analytic hierarchy process and eigenvector techniques. The layers were then integrated using ArcGIS software to generate two groundwater potential maps. The hydrologic parameters-based groundwater potential zone map indicated that the ‘good’ groundwater potential zone covers 27.14% of the area, the ‘moderate’ zone 45.33%, and the ‘poor’ zone 27.53%. A comparison of this map with the groundwater potential map based on subsurface parameters revealed that the hydrologic parameters-based map accurately delineates groundwater potential zones in about 59% of the area, and hence it is dependable to a certain extent. More than 80% of the study area has moderate-to-poor groundwater potential, which necessitates efficient groundwater management for long-term water security. Overall, the integrated technique is useful for the assessment of groundwater resources at a basin or sub-basin scale.

Résumé

L’approche présentée est destinée à évaluer les potentialités en eaux souterraines en utilisant la télédétection, les systèmes d’information géographique et les techniques d’analyse décisionnelle multi-critères. Cette approche partage les données hydrologiques et hydrogéologiques en deux groupes : exogènes (hydrologique) et endogènes (subsurface). Le cas étudié à Salboni Block, au Bengale Occidental (Inde), utilise six couches thématiques de paramètres exogènes et quatre de paramètres endogènes. A ces couches thématiques et à leurs entités ont été assignées des pondérations, qui ont été normalisées par des techniques de hiérarchisation analytique (AHP). Les couches ont ensuite été intégrées en utilisant le logiciel ArcGIS, pour générer deux cartes de potentialités en eaux souterraines. La carte basée sur les paramètres hydrologiques indique que le secteur présentant des potentialités ‘fortes’ couvre 27.14% de surface totale, les potentialités ‘moyennes’ 45.33%, et les potentialités ‘faibles’ 27.53%. La comparaison avec la carte basée sur les paramètres de subsurface met en évidence des concordances sur 59 % de la zone d’étude : dans une certaine mesure, la carte basée sur les paramètres hydrologiques est fiable. Plus de 80% de la zone d’étude présente des potentialités faibles à modérées, ce qui implique de mettre en place une gestion parcimonieuse des eaux souterraines, pour assurer leur pérennité. En règle générale, la technique intégrée est utile pour évaluer les ressources en eaux souterraines à l’échelle du bassin ou du sous-bassin.

Resumen

Se presenta un enfoque para la evaluación del potencial de las aguas subterráneas usando técnicas de sensoramiento remoto, sistema de información geográfica, geoeléctricas y análisis multicriterio de decisión. El enfoque divide los datos hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos disponibles en dos grupos, exógenos (hidrológicos) y endógenos (subsuperficiales). Un caso de estudio en Salboni Block, Bengala occidental (India), utiliza seis capas temáticas de parámetros exógenos y cuatro capas temáticas de parámetros endógenos. A estas capas temáticas y a sus características le fueron asignados pesos apropiados que fueron normalizados por procesos de jerarquía analítica y técnicas de autovectores. Las capas fueron luego integradas usando el software ArcGIS para generar dos mapas potenciales de aguas subterráneas. El mapa potencial de aguas subterráneas basado en los parámetros hidrológicos indicó que la zona de potencial ‘bueno’ de agua subterránea cubre 27.14% del área, la zona ‘moderada’ 45.33%, y la zona ‘pobre’ 27.53%. Una comparación de este mapa con el mapa de potencial de agua subterránea basado en parámetros subsuperficiales reveló que el mapa basado en parámetros hidrológicos define con precisión las zonas de potencial de agua subterránea en alrededor del 59% del área, y por lo tanto es confiable hasta un cierto punto. Más del 80% del área de estudio tiene un potencial de agua subterránea moderado a pobre, lo cual requiere un manejo eficiente de las aguas subterráneas para la seguridad a largo plazo del agua. En general, la técnica integrada es útil para la evaluación de los recursos de aguas subterráneas en una escala de cuenca o subcuenca.

摘要

本文利用遥感、地理信息系统、地电和多准则决策分析方法提出了一种地下水潜力评价的方法。该方法把已有的水文和水文地质数据分成两类, 即外部 (水文) 和内部 (地下) 。在西孟加拉 (印度) 的Salboni区利用六个外部参数专题图层和四个内部参数专题图层进行了一项研究。这些专题图层及其特征被赋予合适的权重, 该权重通过分析层次过程和特征向量方法进行正归化。然后通过Arcgis软件将这些图层整合, 形成两幅地下水潜力图。基于地下水潜力区图的水文参数表明, 较好的地下水潜力区占到整个区域的27.14%, 中等的区占到45.33%, 较差的则占27.53%。该图与基于地下参数的地下水潜力图的比较表明基于水文参数的图准确的勾画了该区59%的地下水潜力区, 且在很大程度上是可靠的。研究区80%以上的地区属于中等-较差地下水潜力区, 使长期有效的地下水安全管理变得十分必要。总之, 在盆地-次盆地尺度上, 综合方法对于地下水资源潜力评价是非常有用的。

Resumo

Apresenta-se uma abordagem para a avaliação do potencial das águas subterrâneas utilizando a detecção remota, um sistema de informação geográfica, métodos geoeléctricos e técnicas de análise de decisão multicritério. A abordagem divide os dados hidrológicos e hidrogeológicos disponíveis em dois grupos, exógenos (hidrológicos) e endógenos (subterrâneos). Um estudo de caso em Salboni Block, Bengala Ocidental (Índia), utiliza seis camadas temáticas de parâmetros exógenos e quatro camadas temáticas de parâmetros endógenos. A estas camadas temáticas e aos seus elementos foram atribuídos pesos adequados, que foram normalizados por processos de hierarquia analítica e baseados em vectores próprios. De seguida, as camadas foram integradas usando o software ArcGIS para gerar dois mapas de potencial das águas subterrâneas. O mapa de zonas de potencial baseadas em parâmetros hidrológicos indicou que a zona de ‘alto’ potencial das águas subterrâneas abrange 27.14% da área, a zona de potencial ‘moderado’ 45.33%, e a zona de potencial ‘baixo’ 27.53%. Uma comparação deste mapa com o mapa de potencial baseado em parâmetros subterrâneos revelou que o mapa assente em parâmetros hidrológicos delimita com precisão as zonas de potencial das águas subterrâneas em cerca de 59% da área, sendo confiável até certo ponto. Mais de 80% da área de estudo tem um potencial em relação às águas subterrâneas moderado a baixo, o que exige uma gestão eficiente dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos para garantir a sua sustentabilidade a longo prazo. De modo geral, a metodologia integrada é útil para a avaliação dos recursos hídricos subterrâneos à escala de bacia ou sub-bacia.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are very grateful to the hydrogeologists of the State Water Investigation Directorate (SWID), Government of West Bengal, West Medinipur, India, for their help and technical discussions during the study period. Thanks are also due to the two anonymous reviewers, and the Editor, Associate Editor and Technical Editorial Advisor for their constructive suggestions, which significantly improved the earlier draft of this article.

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Correspondence to Madan K. Jha.

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Jha, M.K., Chowdary, V.M. & Chowdhury, A. Groundwater assessment in Salboni Block, West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-criteria decision analysis techniques. Hydrogeol J 18, 1713–1728 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-010-0631-z

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Keywords

  • Groundwater development
  • Geophysical method
  • Geographic information systems
  • Water scarcity
  • India