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Groundwater source assessment program for the state of Hawaii, USA: methodology and example application

Programme d’évaluation de la ressource en eau souterraine pour l’état de Hawaï, USA: Méthodologie et exemple d’application

Grundwasserbeurteilungsprogramm für Hawaii, USA: Methoden und Beispielanwendung

Programa de evaluación de aguas subterráneas para el estado de Hawaii, EEUU: Metodología y ejemplo de aplicación

美国夏威夷地下水源评价程序 : 方法和实例应用

Programa de avaliação das origens de água subterrânea para o estado do Hawaii, EUA: Metodologia e exemplo de aplicação

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Abstract

The 1996 reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act required that each state in the US addresses the protection of public drinking water sources, including the development and implementation of a source-water assessment program. Such a program includes delineating source-water assessment areas, inventorying potential contaminant sources within this area, and determining the water system's susceptibility to contamination. The public was also involved in various phases of the program. Hawaii’s groundwater source assessment program is presented, along with an approach for implementation, which is consistent with federal requirements. The approach integrates groundwater models, aquifer databases, and a geographic information system. Source assessment areas were delineated by using numerical groundwater-flow models that used site-specific data to their fullest availability. The proposed approach is flexible enough to allow easy future updates as more sources are identified or as new information becomes available. The final product includes numerical scores that quantify the relative source susceptibility to contamination. Aquifer models developed in this study are potentially useful for future site-specific protection efforts or for other modeling purposes.

Résumé

L’amendement de 1996 au “Safe Dinking Water Act” imposait que chaque état des Etats Unis assure la protection de la ressource publique en eau potable, avec l’établissement et la mise en œuvre d’un programme de reconnaissance de cette ressource. Un tel programme comprenait la délimitation des aires d’évaluation de la ressource, l’inventaire des sources potentielles de contamination et l’appréciation de la vulnérabilité du système aquifère à une contamination. Le public était également impliqué dans les différentes phases du programme. Le programme d’évaluation de la ressource souterraine de Hawaï était présenté en même temps qu’une approche de sa mise en oeuvre, conformément aux directives fédérales. L’approche comportait des modèles d’aquifère, des bases de données hydrogéologiques et un système d’information géographique. Les aires d’évaluation de la ressource étaient délimitées à l’aide de modèles d’écoulement souterrain utilisant les données spécifiques locales les plus fiables. L’approche proposée est suffisamment flexible pour permettre facilement des mises à jour ultérieures à mesure que de nouvelles ressources sont identifiées ou qu’une nouvelle information devient disponible. Le document final comporte des notations qui quantifient la vulnérabilité relative de la ressource à une contamination. Les modèles d’aquifères développés dans cette étude sont potentiellement utilisables pour de futurs efforts de protection spécifiques locales ou en vue d’autres modélisations.

Zusammenfassung

Die Neu-Bevollmächtigung des Trinkwasserschutzgesetzes von 1996 erforderte, dass jeder Staat in Amerika sich mit dem Schutz der allgemeinen Trinkwasserquellen, einschließlich der Entwicklung und Umsetzung eines Grundwasserbeurteilungsprogramms, befasst. Solch ein Programm umfasst die Abgrenzung von Grundwassereinzugsbereichen, das Aufnehmen potentieller verunreinigender Aktivitäten innerhalb des Einzugsbereiches und die Einstufung der Verschmutzungsanfälligkeit des Wassersystems. Die Öffentlichkeit wurde in verschiedenen Phasen des Programms miteinbezogen. Hawaiis Grundwasserbeurteilungsprogramm ist im Einklang mit Bundesanforderungen und wird zusammen mit einem anwendungsbezogenen Beispiel dargestellt. Der Ansatz integriert Grundwassermodelle, Grundwasserleiterdatenbanken und ein geographisches Informationssystem. Grundwassereinzugsbereiche wurden mit Hilfe numerischer Grundwasserflussmodelle, die standortbezogene Daten zu ihrer vollsten Verfügbarkeit verwendeten, abgegrenzt. Der vorgeschlagene Ansatz ist flexibel zu aktualisieren, wenn neue Grundwasserquellen identifiziert werden oder wenn neue Informationen zugänglich werden. Das Endprodukt beinhaltet eine numerische Bewertung, die die relative Anfälligkeit der Grundwasserquelle zur Verschmutzung quantitativ bestimmt. Die Grundwasserleitermodelle, die in dieser Studie entwickelt werden, sind für zukünftigen standortbezogenen Grundwasserschutz oder zu anderen modellierenden Zwecken möglicherweise nützlich.

Resumen

La reautorización de 1996 del acta de agua potable segura requirió que cada estado en los EEUU evaluara la protección de las fuentes de abastecimiento público de agua, incluyendo el desarrollo e implementación de un programa de evaluación de las fuentes de agua. Dicho programa incluye delinear áreas de evaluación de las fuentes de agua, inventariar las fuentes contaminantes potenciales dentro de esta área, y determinar la susceptibilidad del sistema de agua a la contaminación. El público fue también involucrado en varias fases del programa. Se presenta el programa de evaluación de las fuentes aguas subterráneas en Hawaii, conjuntamente con un enfoque para la implementación, el cual es consistente con los requerimientos federales. El enfoque integra modelos de aguas subterráneas, base de datos de acuíferos, y un sistema de información geográfica. Las áreas de evaluación de fuentes fueron delineadas usando modelos numéricos de flujo de aguas subterráneas que son usados datos específicos del sitio en su máxima. El enfoque propuesto es suficientemente flexible para permitir una fácil actualización futura a medida que más fuentes son identificadas o que nueva información esté disponible. El producto final incluye resultados numéricos que cuantifican la susceptibilidad relativa de la fuente a la contaminación. Los modelos de acuíferos desarrollados en este estudio son potencialmente útiles para los futuros esfuerzos de protección específica de los sitios específicos o para otros propósitos de modelado.

摘要

1996年重启的安全饮用水法案要求美国各州对公共饮用水源进行保护, 包括源水评价程序的研发和应用。这样的程序包括源水评价区域的圈定、区内潜在污染源的册录, 及水系统对污染的敏感性的确定。在程序的各阶段都有公众参与。介绍了夏威夷地下水源评价程序, 及对其进行应用的的方法 (与联邦要求一致) 。该方法集成了地下水模型、含水层数据库和地理信息系统。通过基于实际场地数据的地下水流数值模型确定了源评价区域。建议的方法对于将来有更多的源被确认时, 易于更新, 具有足够的弹性。最终结果包括源对污染敏感性的量化的数值评分。本研究研发的含水层模型对于未来具体场地的保护或进行其它模拟有用。

Resumo

A re-autorização, em 1996, da lei federal que garante a qualidade da água para consumo humano nos Estados Unidos (Safe Drinking Water Act) requer que cada estado dos EUA promova a protecção dos recursos hídricos destinados ao abastecimento público, incluindo o desenvolvimento e implementação de um programa de caracterização das origens de água. Este programa inclui a delimitação das áreas potenciais de extracção, o inventário das fontes potenciais de contaminação dentro dessas áreas, e a determinação da susceptibilidade do sistema hídrico à contaminação. O público foi também envolvido em várias fases do programa. O programa de protecção das origens de água subterrânea para abastecimento público do Hawaii é apresentado, juntamente com a metodologia de implementação, consistente com os requisitos federais. A metodologia integra a utilização de modelos de águas subterrâneas, dados de base de aquíferos, e um sistema de informação geográfica. As áreas potenciais de captação foram delineadas recorrendo a modelos numéricos de escoamento subterrâneo, os quais usaram todos os dados de campo específicos disponíveis. A metodologia proposta é suficientemente flexível para permitir actualizações futuras à medida que novas origens são identificadas ou nova informação é disponibilizada. O produto final inclui valores numéricos que quantificam a susceptibilidade relativa dessas áreas à contaminação. Os modelos aquíferos desenvolvidos neste estudo são potencialmente úteis para futuros esforços de protecção de locais de extracção ou para outros propósitos de modelação.

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Acknowledgements

The research was funded by the Hawaii Department of Health. This paper is published as a part of the continuing University of Hawai‘i at Mnoa Water Resources Research Center “Contributed Papers” series. As such it will be assigned a sequential “WRRC-CP” number upon publication. This number, along with the abstract of the paper, will then be posted at the WRRC website http://www.wrrc.hawaii.edu/index.html.

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Correspondence to Aly I. El-Kadi.

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Whittier, R.B., Rotzoll, K., Dhal, S. et al. Groundwater source assessment program for the state of Hawaii, USA: methodology and example application. Hydrogeol J 18, 711–723 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-009-0548-6

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