Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 261–267 | Cite as

State of knowledge of coastal aquifer management in South America

  • Emilia Bocanegra
  • Gerson Cardoso Da SilvaJr.
  • Emilio Custodio
  • Marisol Manzano
  • Suzana Montenegro
Paper

Abstract

A comparative analysis of the existing hydrogeological and management information from 15 coastal aquifers in South America was performed in order to obtain insight into common features of the sub-continent coastal zones. Some knowledge from other areas has been incorporated. There is a very variable degree of knowledge and management practice, ranging from almost no data and no action (the most common case), to sound conceptual models about aquifer behaviour and comprehensive management actions such as relocation of abstractions, pumping brackish groundwater, and aquifer vulnerability mapping. Some common features are: intensive groundwater exploitation; lack of characterization studies to support resource planning and management; lack of monitoring networks; and the need for raising awareness within society and its involvement in resource planning and management action programmes. Quality and quantity problems arising in heavily populated areas associated with coastal aquifers in South America point to unsustainable groundwater development. The sustainable use of those aquifers must rely on adequate evaluation of aquifer characteristics and monitoring.

Keywords

Coastal aquifers South America Conceptual models 

Etat des connaissances sur la gestion des aquifères côtiers en Amérique du Sud

Résumé

Une analyse comparative des informations hydrogéologiques et de gestion provenant de 15 aquifères côtiers en Amérique du Sud a été réalisée afin d’obtenir un aperçu des caractéristiques communes des zones côtières du sub-continent. Quelques connaissances provenant d’autres régions ont été incorporées. Il y a un degré de connaissance et de pratiques de gestion très variable, allant d’une quasi absence de données et d’action (le cas le plus courant), aux modèles conceptuels fiables concernant le comportement des aquifères et les actions de gestion exhaustive, telles que la réimplantation des prélèvements, le pompage d’eau saumâtre, et la cartographie de la vulnérabilité de l’aquifère. Quelques traits communs sont: l’exploitation intensive de l’eau souterraine; le manque d’études des caractéristiques pour étayer la planification et la gestion de la ressource; le manque de réseaux d’observation; et le besoin de développer la prise de conscience au sein de la société et son implication dans la planification de la ressource et les programmes d’action de gestion. Les problèmes de qualité et de quantité apparaissant dans des régions fortement peuplées associées aux aquifères côtiers en Amérique du Sud font ressortir une exploitation de l’eau souterraine non durable. L’utilisation durable de ces aquifères doit s’appuyer sur une évaluation adéquates des caractéristiques et de l’observation de l’aquifère.

Estado de conocimiento de la gestión de los acuíferos costeros en Sudamérica

Resumen

Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de la información existente de 15 acuíferos costeros de Sudamérica, para conocer los rasgos comunes de las áreas costeras del subcontinente. Se ha incorporado también lo que se conoce sobre otras áreas. El grado de conocimiento y de prácticas de gestión es variable, desde casi ninguna información (la situación más común) hasta modelos conceptuales bien establecidos en lo que se refiere al conocimiento del acuífero y a las actuaciones apropiadas de gestión, tales como la reubicación de extracciones, el bombeo de agua subterránea salobre y la cartografía de la vulnerabilidad del acuífero. Algunos de los rasgos comunes son: explotación intensiva del agua subterránea, falta de estudios de caracterízación que apoyen la planificación y gestión de los recursos, falta de redes de observación y la necesidad de crear una conciencia sobre la cuestión en la sociedad y su implicación en la planificación del recurso y en los programas de actuaciones de gestión. Los problemas de calidad y cantidad que aparecen en áreas altamente pobladas que están asociadas a acuíferos costeros sudamericanos, indican un desarrollo no sustentable de las aguas subterráneas. El uso sustentable de esos acuíferos debe basarse en la adecuada evaluación de las características de los acuíferos y en la observación.

Estado do conhecimento da gestão de aquíferos costeiros na América do Sul

Resumo

Realizou-se um estudo comparativo da informação existente sobre 15 aquíferos costeiros da América do Sul, para conhecer as características comuns das áreas costeiras desse subcontinente, incorporando-se também o conhecimento sobre outras áreas. O grau de conhecimento e de práticas de gestão são variáveis, desde quase nenhuma informação (a situação mais comum) até modelos conceituais bem estabelecidos quanto ao conhecimento do aquífero e quanto a atuações apropriadas de gestão. Tais atuações de gestão compreenderiam a relocação de pontos de bombeamento, extrações de água subterrânea salobra e a cartografia de vulnerabilidade de aquíferos. Alguns dos rasgos comuns a todos os aquíferos são: explotação intensiva de água subterrânea, falta de estudos de caracterização que suportem a planificação e gestão dos recursos, falta de redes de observação e a necessidade de criar uma consciência sobre a questão na sociedade e sua implicação na planificação do recurso e nos programas de atuações de gestão. Os problemas de qualidade e quantidade que aparecem em áreas altamente povoadas que estão associadas a aquíferos costeiros sul-americanos indicam um desenvolvimento não sustentável das águas subterrâneas. O uso sustentável desses aquíferos deve basear-se na avaliação adequada das características dos aquíferos e em seu monitoramento.

References

  1. Almagro L, Custodio E (2004) Caracterización hidrogeoquímica de las aguas subterráneas en la formación Chuy, en la franja costera del Este del Uruguay, fronteriza con Brasil [Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater in the Chuy Formation, Uruguay’s eastern coastal fringe]. Bol Geol Min 115:357–377Google Scholar
  2. Almagro L, Custodio E, Rocha L, Abelenda D (1998) Hidrogeología del acuífero superior de la formación Chuy (SW del Uruguay), 1: modelo conceptual [Hydrogeology of the upper aquifer of the Chuy Formation (SW Uruguay), 1: conceptual model]. Actas del 4°Congreso Latinoamericano de Hidrología Subterránea, vol 1. Asociación Latinoamericana de Hidrología Subterránea para el Desarrollo, Montevideo, pp 374–390Google Scholar
  3. Bocanegra E, Custodio E (1995) Utilización de acuíferos costeros para abastecimiento. Dos casos de estudio: Mar del Plata (Pcia. de Buenos Aires, Argentina) y Barcelona (Cataluña, España) [Use of coastal aquifers for water supply. Two case studies: Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) and Barcelona (Spain)]. Ing Agua 1(4):49–78Google Scholar
  4. Bocanegra EM, Martínez DE, Massone H, Cionchi JL (1993) Exploitation effect and salt water intrusion in the Mar del Plata aquifer, Argentina: study and modelling of salt water intrusion into aquifers, vol 1. CIMNE-UPC, Barcelona, pp 177–191Google Scholar
  5. Cossio MC, Vargas A (1995) Groundwater evaluation in Urabá Region (in Spanish). Final report (internal, Instituto de Investigaciones en Geociencias, Minería y Química - CORPOURABA, Bogotá, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  6. d'Ozouville N, Auken E, Sorensen K, Violette S, de Marsily G, Deffontaines B, Merlen G (2008) Extensive perched aquifer and structural implications revealed by 3D resistivity mapping in a Galapagos volcano. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269(3–4):518–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Demetrio JGA, Oliveira LT (2004) Hydrogeological zoning of the northern portion of Recife Metropolitan Area (in Portuguese). XIII Congresso Brasileiro Águas Subterrâneas, Cuiabá, MT Anais, October 2004, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  8. Groen J, Velstra J, Meesters AGCA (2000) Salinization processes in palaeowaters in coastal sediments of Suriname: evidence from δ37Cl analysis and diffusion modeling. J Hydrol 234:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guerra NC, Sial AN (2003) Diagenetic model for beachrocks of the Alagoas State, northeastern Brazil: isotopic and petrographic evidence. Short Papers, vol 1, IV South American Symposium on Isotope Geology. Salvador, Bahia (Brazil), August 2003, IRD/CBPM, Salvador, Brazil, pp 357–358Google Scholar
  10. Guerra NC, Kiang CH, Sial AN (2005) Carbonate cements in contemporaneous beachrocks: Jaguaribe beach, Itamaracá island, northeastern Brazil: petrographic, geochemical and isotopic aspects. An Acad Bras Ciencias 77(2):343–352Google Scholar
  11. Herrera Ch, Custodio E (2008) Conceptual hydrogeological model of volcanic Easter Island (Chile) after chemical and isotopic surveys. Hydrogeol J 16(7):1329–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herrera Ch, Pincheira M, Custodio E, Araguás L, Velasco G (2004) Tritium content in groundwater from Easter Island, Chile, as a tool to assess recharge on a volcanic aquifer (in Spanish). Bol Geol Min 15:299–310Google Scholar
  13. Lucena LRF, Rosa Filho EF, Bittencourt AVL (2004) Potentiometry of Barreiras aquifer in the eastern sector of Pirangi River basin and aspects related to surface waters (in Portuguese). Aguas Subterr 18(1):19–27Google Scholar
  14. Montenegro SMGL, Montenegro AA de A, Cabral JJ da S, Cavalcanti GL (2006) Intensive exploitation and groundwater salinity in Recife coastal plain (Brazil): monitoring and management perspectives. In: Barrocu G (ed) Proceedings of the First International Joint Salt Water Intrusion Conference. Caligria, Italy, September 2006, pp 79–85Google Scholar
  15. Morris BL, Lawrence ARL, Chilton PJC, Adams B, Calow RC, Klinck BA (2003) Groundwater and its susceptibility to degradation: a global assessment of the problem and options for management. Early Warning and Assessment Report Series, RS. 03-3. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  16. Nobre RCM, Rotuno Filho OC, Mansur WJ, Nobre MMM, Cosenza CAN (2007) Groundwater vulnerability and risk mapping using GIS, modelling and fuzzy logic tool. J Contam Hydrol 94:277–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. PHI (1996) Hydrogeological map of South America. 1:5.000.000. International Hydrological Programme, UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  18. Rebouças A (1999) Groundwater resources in South America. Episodes 3(22):232–237Google Scholar
  19. Rodriguez CO, Molano C, Bonilla F (1994) Artificial recharge of the Santa Marta Aquifer, Colombia. Artificial Recharge of Ground Water (II Symposium), vol 2. Orlando, FL, July 1994, pp 446–455Google Scholar
  20. Schwartz ML (2005) Encyclopedia of coastal science. Springer, New York, 1211 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Silva-Filho EV, Barcellos RG, Emblanch C, Blavoux B, Sella SM, Daniel M, Simler R, Wasserman J (2009) Groundwater chemical characterization of a Rio de Janeiro coastal aquifer, SE Brazil. J South Am Earth Sci 27(1):100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Silva GC Jr, Pizani TC (2003) Vulnerability assessment in coastal aquifers between Niterói And Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Rev Lat Am Hidrául 3(2):125–133Google Scholar
  23. Tovar Pacheco JA, Sayán Miranda JL, Pérez Verástegui G, Guzmán Martínez A (2006) Estado del conocimiento de la hidrogeología en Perú [State of the art of Peru’s hydrogeology knowledge]. Bol Geol Min 117(1):147–161Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emilia Bocanegra
    • 1
  • Gerson Cardoso Da SilvaJr.
    • 2
  • Emilio Custodio
    • 3
  • Marisol Manzano
    • 4
  • Suzana Montenegro
    • 5
  1. 1.Centro de Geología de Costas y del CuaternarioNational University of Mar del Plata (UNMDP)Mar del PlataArgentina
  2. 2.Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ)Rio de JaneiroBrasil
  3. 3.Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT)CartagenaSpain
  5. 5.Federal University of Pernambuco (UFP)RecifeBrazil

Personalised recommendations