Hydrogeology Journal

, 14:689 | Cite as

Contact zone permeability at intrusion boundaries: new results from hydraulic testing and geophysical logging in the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA

  • Jürg M. Matter
  • D. S. Goldberg
  • R. H. Morin
  • M. Stute
Paper

Abstract

Hydraulic tests and geophysical logging performed in the Palisades sill and the underlying sedimentary rocks in the NE part of the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA, confirm that the particular transmissive zones are localized within the dolerite-sedimentary rock contact zone and within a narrow interval below this contact zone that is characterized by the occurrence of small layers of chilled dolerite. Transmissivity values determined from fluid injection, aquifer testing, and flowmeter measurements generally fall in the range of 8.1E-08 to 9.95E-06 m2/s and correspond to various scales of investigation. The analysis of acoustic and optical BHTV images reveals two primary fracture sets within the dolerite and the sedimentary rocks—subhorizontal fractures, intersected by subvertical ones. Despite being highly fractured either with subhorizontal, subvertical or both fracture populations, the dolerite above and the sedimentary rocks below the contact zone and the zone with the layers of chilled dolerite are significantly less conductive. The distribution of the particular conductive intervals is not a function of the two dominant fracture populations or their density but rather of the intrusion path of the sill. The intrusion caused thermal fracturing and cracking of both formations, resulting in higher permeability along the contact zone.

Keywords

Fractured rocks Igneous rocks Groundwater hydraulics Hydraulic testing Geophysical methods 

Résumé

Des tests hydrauliques et des sondages géophysiques réalisés dans la formation Palisades et les roches sédimentaires sous-jacentes, dans la partie NE du rift du Newark, confirme que les zones transmissives sont localisées dans la zone de contact entre les roches sédimentaires et doléritiques, et dans un intervalle «en goulet» composé de petites couches de dolérites, à proximité de cette zone de contact. Les valeurs de transmissivités, déterminées par injection, essais de pompages, et mesures des débits, sont comprises entre 8.1E-8 et 9.95E-06 m2/s et correspondent à des échelles variables d’investigation. L’analyse d’images BHTV acoustiques et optiques, révèle deux lots de fractures dans la dolérite et la roche sédimentaire—fractures subhorizontales, intersectées par des fractures subverticales. Malgré des zones très fracturées, caractérisées par l’une ou l’autre voir les deux lots de fractures, la conductivité hydraulique est assez faible. La distribution des intervalles particulièrement conductifs n’est pas une fonction des deux lots de fractures dominants, ou de leur densité, mais plutôt du taux de pénétration des couches. L’intrusion provoque la fracturation thermique des deux formations, induisant une conductivité hydraulique meilleure le long de la zone de contact.

Resumen

Pruebas hidráulicas y levantamientos geofísicos realizados en el manto interestratificado Palisades y las rocas sedimentarias subyacentes en la parte NE de la cuenca extensional Newark confirman que las zonas transmisivas particulares se localizan dentro de una zona de contacto dolerita-roca sedimentaria y dentro de un intervalo angosto por debajo de esta zona de contacto que se caracteriza por la ocurrencia de pequeñas capas de dolerita enfriada. Los valores de transmisividad determinados a partir de inyección de fluidos, pruebas de acuíferos, y estimaciones de mediciones de flujo generalmente caen en el rango de 8.1×10−8 y 9.95×10−6 m2/s y corresponden a varias escalas de investigación. El análisis de imágenes BHTV ópticas y acústicas revela dos conjuntos de fractura primarios dentro de la dolerita y las rocas sedimentarias: fracturas subhorizontales intersectadas por fracturas verticales. A pesar de encontrase altamente fracturadas ya sea con fracturas subverticals o subhorizontales o con ambas poblaciones de fracturas, la dolerita que se encuentra por encima, las rocas sedimentarias que se encuentran por debajo de la zona de contacto, y la zona con las capas de dolerita enfriada son significativamente menos conductivas. La distribución de los intervalos particulares conductivos no es función de las dos poblaciones de fracturas dominantes o de su densidad sino más bien de la ruta de intrusión del manto interestratificado. La intrusión causó fracturamiento termal y agrietamiento de ambas formaciones resultando en permeabilidad más alta a lo largo de la zona de contacto.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürg M. Matter
    • 1
  • D. S. Goldberg
    • 2
  • R. H. Morin
    • 3
  • M. Stute
    • 1
  1. 1.Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia UniversityGeochemistryPalisadesUSA
  2. 2.Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia UniversityBorehole ResearchPalisadesUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Geological SurveyDenver Federal CenterDenverUSA

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