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Proximale Humerusfrakturen – Primäre Endoprothetik

Proximal humeral fractures—Primary endoprosthetics

  • Leitthema
  • Published:
Trauma und Berufskrankheit

Zusammenfassung

Frakturen des proximalen Humerus sind in der täglichen unfallchirurgischen Routine häufig zu finden und zeigen eine steigende Inzidenz in der älteren Bevölkerung. Gerade bei komplexen Frakturmustern ist die Entscheidung zwischen gelenkerhaltenden Verfahren oder einem prothetischen Ersatz schwierig. Bei jüngeren Patienten sollte generell eine Gelenkrekonstruktion angestrebt werden. Sollte es zu einem sekundären Osteosyntheseversagen kommen, ist meist eine Konversion auf eine inverse Prothese indiziert. Hier ist mit einem geringeren Bewegungsumfang sowie einer höheren Komplikationsrate verglichen mit einer Primärimplantation zu rechnen. Sollte keine Osteosynthese möglich sein, besteht bereits primär die Indikation zum endoprothetischen Ersatz. Entscheidend für das funktionelle Outcome einer anatomischen Prothese ist das Einheilen der Tuberkula. Bei älteren Patienten geht daher der Trend zur primären inversen Prothesenimplantation mit einem deutlich homogeneren klinischen Ergebnis unabhängig von der Rotatorenmanschettenfunktion. Der folgende Beitrag stellt die aktuelle Literatur vor und soll bei der Entscheidung im Alltag helfen.

Abstract

Fractures of the proximal humerus are common in daily surgical practice and show an increasing incidence especially in the older population. In complex fracture patterns the choice between joint-preserving procedures and joint replacement is difficult. In younger patients it is generally recommended to attempt a primary joint reconstruction. In cases of secondary failure of osteosynthesis a conversion to a reverse fracture prothesis is often indicated. A lower range of motion and a higher complication rate compared to a primary implantation of a prothesis has to be expected. In the presence of irreparable fractures a primary fracture arthroplasty is indicated. A decisive factor for the functional outcome of an anatomical arthroplasty is the correct healing of the tuberosities. Especially in older patients the trend is towards the implantation of a primary reverse fracture prothesis resulting in more homogeneous clinical results, irrespective of rotator cuff function. This article reviews the current literature and is intended to provide a decision support in everyday clinical practice.

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Correspondence to D. Wincheringer.

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D. Wincheringer, U. Schweigkofler, M. Kremer und R. Hoffmann geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

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Wincheringer, D., Schweigkofler, U., Kremer, M. et al. Proximale Humerusfrakturen – Primäre Endoprothetik. Trauma Berufskrankh 21, 2–8 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10039-019-0419-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10039-019-0419-x

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