Trauma und Berufskrankheit

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 250–260 | Cite as

Verletzungen der Halswirbelsäule

Klassifikation
Leitthema
  • 320 Downloads

Zusammenfassung

Klassifikationen in der Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie sind relevant für die Kommunikation zwischen Therapeuten, für die Patientenbehandlung und auch für die wissenschaftliche Forschung. Idealerweise sollten Klassifikationen einfach und reproduzierbar sein und die jeweiligen für die Behandlung relevanten Charakteristika der Verletzungstypen hervorheben. Sie sollten der präzisen und strukturierten Analyse einer Verletzung dienen, um eine adäquate Planung der Behandlung zu ermöglichen. Als Einstieg in das Themenheft „Verletzungen der Halswirbelsäule“, möchten wir Sie im vorliegenden Übersichtsbeitrag mit den unterschiedlichen Klassifikationssystemen zur Einteilung von Verletzungen/Frakturen an der oberen und unteren Halswirbelsäule vertraut machen.

Schlüsselwörter

Fraktur Morphologie Klassifikation Unfallchirurgie Diagnostik 

Injuries of the cervical spine

Classification

Abstract

Fracture classification in orthopedics and trauma surgery is relevant for communication between surgeons, patient treatment as well as for scientific research. To choose the correct classification of the injury, a precise and structured radiological analysis of the injury is necessary. Ideally, classification systems should be simple, reproducible and should highlight the injury characteristics relevant for the adequate planning of treatment. As an introduction to the thematic issue on ”Injuries of the cervical spine“, this overview article introduces the various classification systems used for allocation of injuries and fractures of the upper and lower cervical spine.

Keywords

Fracture Morphology Classification Trauma surgery Diagnosis 

Notes

Einhaltung ethischer Richtlinien

Interessenkonflikt

M. Scholz, A. Pingel und F. Kandziora geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

Dieser Beitrag beinhaltet keine von den Autoren durchgeführten Studien an Menschen oder Tieren.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Aebi M, Nazarian S (1987) Classification of injuries of the cervical spine. Orthopäde 16:27–36Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Allen BL, Ferguson RL, Lehmann TR, O’Brien RP (1982) A mechanistic classification of closed, indirect fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine. Spine 7:1–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson LD, D’Alonzo RT (1974) Fractures of the odontoid process of the axis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 56:1663–1674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson PA, Montesano PX (1988) Morphology and treatment of occipital condyle fractures. Spine 13:731–736CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Audigé L, Bhandari M, Hanson B, Kellam J (2005) A concept for the validation of fracture classifications. J Orthop Trauma 19:401–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Benzel EC, Hart BL, Ball PA et al (1994) Fractures of the C‑2 vertebral body. J Neurosurg 81:206–212. doi: 10.3171/jns.1994.81.2.0206 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    de la Caffiniere JY, Seringe R, Roy-Camille R, Saillant G (1972) Physio-pathological study of severe ligament lesions in injuries of the spino-occipital joint. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot 58:11–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Como JJ, Diaz JJ, Dunham CM et al (2009) Practice management guidelines for identification of cervical spine injuries following trauma: update from the eastern association for the surgery of trauma practice management guidelines committee. J Trauma 67:651–659CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dickman CA, Greene KA, Sonntag VK (1996) Injuries involving the transverse atlantal ligament: classification and treatment guidelines based upon experience with 39 injuries. Neurosurgery 38:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Effendi B, Roy D, Cornish B et al (1981) Fractures of the ring of the axis. A classification based on the analysis of 131 cases. J Bone Joint Surg Br 63:319–327Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fielding JW, Hawkins RJ (1977) Atlanto-axial rotatory fixation. (Fixed rotatory subluxation of the atlanto-axial joint). J Bone Joint Surg Am 59:37–44CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gehweiler JA, Osborne RL, Becker RF (1980) The radiology of vertebral trauma. W.B. Saunders Company, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harris JH, Edeiken-Monroe B, Kopaniky DR (1986) A practical classification of acute cervical spine injuries. Orthop Clin North Am 17:15–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harris JHJ, Carson GC, Wagner LK, Kerr N (1994) Radiologic diagnosis of traumatic occipitovertebral dissociation: 2. Comparison of three methods of detecting occipitovertebral relationships on lateral radiographs of supine subjects. AJR Am J Roentgenol 162:887–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Holdsworth F (1970) Fractures, dislocations, and fracture-dislocations of the spine. J Bone Joint Surg Am 52:1534–1551CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    James IA, Moukalled A, Yu E et al (2014) A systematic review of the need for MRI for the clearance of cervical spine injury in obtunded blunt trauma patients after normal cervical spine CT. J Emerg Trauma Shock 7:251–255CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kandziora F, Schnake K, Hoffmann R (2010) Injuries to the upper cervical spine. Unfallchirurg 113:931–943CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kandziora F, Schnake K, Hoffmann R (2010) Injuries to the upper cervical spine. Unfallchirurg 113:1023–1041CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levine AM, Edwards CC (1985) The management of traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 67:217–226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Middendorp JJ, Audigé L, Hanson B et al (2010) What should an ideal spinal injury classification system consist of? A methodological review and conceptual proposal for future classifications. Eur Spine J 19:1238–1249CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pekmezci M, Theologis AA, Dionisio R, Mackersie R, Trigg McClellan R (2015) Cervical spine clearance protocols in Level I, II, and III trauma centers in California. Spine J 15:398–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Raza M, Elkhodair S, Zaheer A, Yousaf S (2013) Safe cervical spine clearance in adult obtunded blunt trauma patients on the basis of a normal multidetector CT scan – a meta-analysis and cohort study. Injury 44:1589–1595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Scholz M, Schleicher P, Kandziora F (2015) Verletzungen der subaxialen Halswirbelsäule. Orthop Unfallchir Up2date 10:429–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vaccaro AR, Hulbert RJ, Patel AA et al (2007) The subaxial cervical spine injury classification system: a novel approach to recognize the importance of morphology, neurology, and integrity of the disco-ligamentous complex. Spine 32:2365–2374CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vaccaro AR, Oner C, Kepler CK et al (2013) AOSpine thoracolumbar spine injury classification system: fracture description, neurological status, and key modifiers. Spine 38:2028–2037CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vaccaro AR, Koerner JD, Radcliff KE et al (2016) AOSpine subaxial cervical spine injury classification system. Eur Spine J 25:2173-2184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag Berlin 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zentrum für Wirbelsäulenchirurgie und NeurotraumatologieBG Unfallklinik Frankfurt am Main gGmbHFrankfurt am MainDeutschland

Personalised recommendations