# A discrete element implementation for concrete: particle generation, contact calculations, packing under gravity and modeling material response

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## Abstract

A three-dimensional discrete element modelling capability for concrete based on rigid particles of arbitrary shape and size has been developed. The novel particle generation algorithm allows control of particle size, angularity and flakiness. General rigid body kinematics including finite rotations is accounted for, and an explicit time integration algorithm that conserves energy and momentum is implemented. An efficient contact algorithm with several features to increase the efficiency of the contact computations has been developed. This enables the gravity packing problem for arbitrary shaped particles to be solved in reasonable run time. The proposed procedure is used to generate assemblies of concrete specimens of various sizes that are homogeneous and isotropic in the bulk, and can capture the wall effect due to the formwork. The calibrated specimens are seen to be capable of accurately capturing experimentally observed macro stress strain response and failure patterns. The influence of aggregate shape on texture formation in the packed specimen, and on macro strength and failure patterns in hardened concrete, is demonstrated and is seen to be consistent with experimental results.

## Keywords

Discrete element Concrete Polyhedral particles Angularity Flakiness## Notes

### Compliance with Ethical Standards

### Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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