Vacuum packed particles as flexible endoscope guides with controllable rigidity

Abstract

In order to fully benefit from the functionalities of flexible endoscopes in surgery a simple shaft-guide that can be used to support the flexible endoscope shaft is required. Such a shaft-guide must be flexible during insertion into the human body and rigidified when properly positioned to support the flexible endoscope shaft. A shaft-guide called ‘Vacu-SL’ was designed, consisting of a foil tube, filled with particles, that is rigidified by creating a vacuum in its tube. It is expected that the bending stiffness of a loaded, rigidified Vacu-SL shaft-guide is significantly influenced by the shape, hardness and size of the filler particles used. The goal of this study was to find the relations between the filler particles’ size, shape and hardness and a rigidified Vacu-SL shaft-guide’s bending stiffness. Vacu-SL test models were made using polystyrene, acrylic glass, glass, steel, and corundum particles as spheres, pebbles and granulate, with average diameters between 0.16–1.7 mm. These test models were rigidified and then loaded in a tensile tester. The forces needed for 5 and 10 mm deflections of the rigidified test models were measured. The results show that particle size, shape and hardness all influence a rigidified Vacu-SL shaft-guide’s bending stiffness. Size and hardness showed an optimum and granules performed better than spheres. Although the maximally measured bending stiffness might be insufficient to enable proper guidance of flexible endoscope shafts, the results suggest several ways to successfully improve the Vacu-SL shaft-guide.

References

  1. 1

    Baillie J.: The endoscope. Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 886–893 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Hawes R.H., Rattner D.W., Fleischer D. et al.: NOTES(TM): where have we been and where are we going?. Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, 779–780 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Rattner D., Kalloo A.: ASGE/SAGES Working Group on Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery: October 2005. Surg. Endosc. 20, 329–333 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Shih S.P., Kantsevoy S.V., Kalloo A.N. et al.: Hybrid minimally invasive surgery - A bridge between laparoscopic and translumenal surgery. Surg. Endosc. 21, 1450–1453 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Swain P.: A justification for NOTES-natural orifice translumenal endosurgery. Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 514–516 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Church J., Delaney C.: Randomized, Controlled Trial of Carbon Dioxide Insufflation During Colonoscopy. Dis. Colon Rectum 46, 322–326 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Church J.M.: Ancillary colonoscope insertion techniques—an evaluation. Surg. Endosc. 7, 191–193 (1993)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Hull T., Church J.M.: Colonoscopy—how difficult, how painful?. Surg. Endosc. 8, 784–787 (1994)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Lee S.H., Chung I.K., Kim S.J. et al.: An adequate level of training for technical competence in screening and diagnostic colonoscopy: a prospective multicenter evaluation of the learning curve. Gastrointest. Endosc. 67, 7 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Leung F.W.: Methods of reducing discomfort during colonoscopy. Dig. Dis. Sci. 53(6), 1–6 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Shah S.G., Saunders B.P., Brooker J.C. et al.: Magnetic imaging of colonoscopy: an audit of looping, accuracy and ancillary maneuvers. Gastrointest. Endosc. 52, 1–8 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Waye J.D., Rex D.K., Williams C.B.: Colonoscopy: Principles and Practice. Blackwell Pub, Oxford (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Campanaro, L., Goldstone, N.J., Shepherd, C.C.: Rigidized evacuated structure. US Patent 3,258,883, July 5 (1966)

  14. 14

    Loeb, J., Plantif, B.E.P.J.: Systeme de protection par modelage sous forme d’enceinte deformable et rigidifiable par depression, (FR). CA Patent (Brevet Canadien) 1035055, July 18 (1978)

  15. 15

    Rose, F.L.: Vacuum formed support structures and immobilizer devices. Bio-Medical Systems, Inc., Danbury, CT, US Patent 3,745,998, July 17 (1973)

  16. 16

    Zinner, N.R., Sterling A.M.: Penile prosthesis and method. Torracne, CA, US Patent 5,069,201, December 3 (1991)

  17. 17

    Reynolds O.: On the dilatancy of media composed of rigid particles in contact. Philos. Magazine 20, 469–481 (1885)

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Revuzhenko A.F., Filippovich A.: Mechanics of granular media. Springer, Berlin (2006)

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Olson J., Priester M., Luo J. et al.: Packing fractions and maximum angles of stability of granular materials. Phys. Rev. E 72, 031302 (2005)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Guises R., Xiang J., Latham J.P. et al.: Granular packing: numerical simulation and the characterisation of the effect of particle shape. Granul. Matter 11, 281–292 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Oda M., Konishi J., Nemat-Nasser S.: Experimental micromechanical evaluation of strength of granular materials: effects of particle rolling. Mech. Mater. 1, 269–283 (1982)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Podczeck F., Miah Y.: The influence of particle size and shape on the angle of internal friction and the flow factor of unlubricated and lubricated powders. Int. J. Pharm. 144, 187–194 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    Ludewig F., Vandewalle N., Dorbolo S.: Compaction of granular mixtures. Granul. Matter 8, 87–91 (2006)

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Kuhn M.R., Bagi K.: Contact rolling and deformation in granular media. Int. J. Solids. Struct. 41, 5793–5820 (2004)

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Aguirre M.A., Nerone N., Calvo A. et al.: Influence of the number of layers on the equilibrium of a granular packing. Physical Review E - Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics 62, 738–743 (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Aguirre M.A., Nerone N., Ippolito I. et al.: Granular packing: influence of different parameters on its stability. Granul. Matter 3, 75–77 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Blair D.L., Mueggenburg N.W., Marshall A.H. et al.: Force distributions in three-dimensional granular assemblies: effects of packing order and interparticle friction. Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics 63, 413041–413048 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Kadau D., Schwesig D., Theuerkauf J. et al.: Influence of particle elasticity in shear testers. Granul. Matter 8, 35–40 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Luding S.: Stress distribution in static two-dimensional granular model media in the absence of friction. Phys. Rev. E 55, 4720–4729 (1997)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Dintwa E., Tijskens E., Ramon H.: On the accuracy of the Hertz model to describe the normal contact of soft elastic spheres. Granul. Matter 10, 209–221 (2008)

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    van Beek A.: Advanced engineering design: lifetime performance and reliability. Delft University of Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Delft, The Netherlands (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Radjai F., Wolf D.E.: Features of static pressure in dense granular media. Granul. Matter 1, 3–8 (1998)

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Soria-Hoyo C., Valverde J.M., Castellanos A.: Avalanches in moistened beds of glass beads. Powder Technol. 196, 257–262 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Bowden F.P., Tabor D.: The friction and lubrication of solids. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1950)

    Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Porgess P.V.K., Wilman H.: The dependence of friction on surface roughness. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. Series A Math. Phy. Sci. 252, 35–44 (1959)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Bhushan B.: Modern Tribology Handbook. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Wehrmeyer J.A., Barthel J.A., Roth J.P. et al.: Colonoscope flexural rigidity measurement. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput 36, 475–479 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Gere J.M., Timoshenko S.P.: Mechanics of materials. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd, Cheltenham, UK (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Ghazavi M.: Shear strength characteristics of sand-mixed with granular rubber. Geotech. Geol. Eng. 22, 401–416 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Kim H.K., Santamarina J.C.: Sand-rubber mixtures (large rubber chips). Can. Geotech. J. 45, 1457–1466 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Lee J.S., Dodds J., Santamarina J.C.: Behavior of rigid-soft particle mixtures. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 19, 179–184 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

These tests were made possible due to Marc Los’ efforts in the pilot studies and the efforts of Sebastiaan Kiemel and Martijn Jansen during the tests. Marc, Sebastiaan and Martijn are Mechanical Engineering students of the Delft University of Technology.

Open Access

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arjo J. Loeve.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Loeve, A.J., van de Ven, O.S., Vogel, J.G. et al. Vacuum packed particles as flexible endoscope guides with controllable rigidity. Granular Matter 12, 543–554 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10035-010-0193-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Size
  • Shape
  • Hardness
  • Vacuum
  • Shaft-guide
  • Endoscopy