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Pressure and motion of dry sand: translation of Hagen’s paper from 1852

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In a remarkable paper from 1852, Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen measured and explained two fundamental aspects of granular matter: The first effect is the saturation of pressure with depth in a static granular system confined by silo walls – generally known as the Janssen effect. The second part of his paper describes the dynamics observed during the flow out of the container – today often called the Beverloo law – and forms the foundation of the hourglass theory. A translation of the original 1852 paper is presented after a brief introduction.

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Correspondence to Matthias Sperl.

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Tighe, B.P., Sperl, M. Pressure and motion of dry sand: translation of Hagen’s paper from 1852. Granular Matter 9, 141–144 (2007).

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