With the emergence of big data, deep learning (DL) approaches are becoming quite popular in many branches of science. Forensic science is no longer an exception. However, there are certain problems in forensic science where the solutions would hardly benefit from the recent advances in DL algorithms. Document authentication is one such problem where we can have many reference samples, and with the big data scenario probably we would have even more number of reference samples but number of defective or forged samples will remain an issue. Experts often encounter situations where there is no or hardly a scanty number of forged samples available. In such situation, employment of data-hungry algorithms would be inefficient as they will not be able to learn the forged samples properly. This paper addresses this problem and proposes a novel reference modelling framework for forensic document authentication. The approach is based on Mahalanobis space. Two questioned document examination problems have been studied to show the effectiveness of our reference modelling algorithm which has also been compared to a commonly used learning approach, namely neural network-based classification.
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Garain, U., Halder, B. Even big data is not enough: need for a novel reference modelling for forensic document authentication. IJDAR 23, 1–11 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10032-019-00345-w