Skip to main content

Analysis and understanding of multi-class invoices


In this paper a system for processing documents that can be grouped into classes is illustrated. We have considered invoices as a case-study. The system is divided into three phases: document analysis, classification, and understanding. We illustrate the analysis and understanding phases. The system is based on knowledge constructed by means of a learning procedure. The experimental results demonstrate the reliability of our document analysis and understanding procedures. They also present evidence that it is possible to use a small learning set of invoices to obtain reliable knowledge for the understanding phase.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to F. Cesarini.

Additional information

Received: 19 February 2001, Revised: 17 July 2002, Published online: 6 June 2003

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cesarini, F., Francesconi, E., Gori, M. et al. Analysis and understanding of multi-class invoices. IJDAR 6, 102–114 (2003).

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Layout structure
  • Logical structure
  • Physical object
  • Logical object
  • Class-independent domain knowledge (CIDK)
  • Class-Dependent Domain Knowledge (CDDK)
  • Class Knowledge (CK)