iBTA-induced bovine Biosheet for repair of abdominal wall defects in a beagle model: proof of concept



We evaluated the usefulness of xeno-Biosheets, an in-body tissue architecture-induced bovine collagenous sheet, as repair materials for abdominal wall defects in a beagle model.

Materials and Methods

Biosheets were prepared by embedding cylindrical molds into subcutaneous pouches of three Holstein cows for 2–3 months and stored in 70% ethanol. The Biosheets were 0.5 mm thick, cut into 2 cm × 2 cm, and implanted to replace defects of the same size in the abdominal wall of nine beagles. The abdominal wall and Biosheets were harvested and subjected to histological evaluation at 1, 3, and 5 months after implantation (n = 3 each).


The Biosheet and bovine pericardiac patch (control) were not stressed during the suture operation and did not split, and patches were easily implanted on defective wounds. After implantation, the patch did not fall off and was not perforated, and healing was observed nacroscopically in all cases. During the first month of implantation, accumulation of inflammatory cells was observed along with decomposition around the Biosheet. Decomposition was almost complete after 3 months, and the Biosheet was replaced by autologous collagenous connective tissue without rejection. After 5 months, the abdominal wall muscle elongated from the periphery of the newly formed collagen layer and the peritoneum was formed on the peritoneal cavity surface. Regeneration of almost all layers of the abdominal wall was observed. However, almost all pericardium patches were remained even at 5 months with inflammation.


Bovine Biosheets requiring no special post-treatment can be useful as off-the-shelf materials for abdominal wall repair.

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We would like to thank Manami Sone, Tomohiro Mitani, Teppei Ikeda, and Keigo Kosenda for their valuable help.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. Nakayama.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest associated with this work.

Ethical approval

The animal experiments were approved by the National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research Institute Committee (No. 17013) and Hokkaido University (No. 16-0110).

Human and animal rights

All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, published by the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH Publication No.85-23, received 1996).

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For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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Nakayama, Y., Oshima, N., Tatsumi, E. et al. iBTA-induced bovine Biosheet for repair of abdominal wall defects in a beagle model: proof of concept. Hernia 22, 1033–1039 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10029-018-1799-8

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  • Abdominal wall
  • In-body tissue architecture
  • Biosheet
  • Xeno
  • Repair material