, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 353–361 | Cite as

Incidence, etiology, management, and outcomes of flank hernia: review of published data

  • D. J. Zhou
  • M. A. Carlson



To review the published data describing the incidence, etiology, management, and outcomes of flank hernia.


A retrospective review of articles identified with an online search (using the terms “flank hernia”, “flank bulge”, “lateral hernia”, “retroperitoneal aorta hernia”, and “open radical nephrectomy”) was performed. Studies exclusively on lumbar hernia or subcostal hernia were excluded.


All articles retained for analysis (N = 26) were uncontrolled series or case reports; there were no controlled trials. The incidence of incisional hernia in the flank was ~ 17% (total patients analyzed = 1,061). Flank hernia repair was accomplished successfully with a variety of techniques, with overall mean rates of perioperative complications, chronic post-procedure pain, and recurrence equal to 20, 11, and 7%, respectively. Mesh utilization was universal.


The available data of outcomes of flank hernia repair are not of high quality, and recommendations essentially consist of expert opinions. Operative approach (open vs. laparoscopic) and mesh insertion details have varied, but reasonable results appear possible with a number of techniques.


Flank hernia Incisional hernia Surgical mesh Retrospective review 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

DZ declares no conflict of interest. MAC declares no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The study described in this manuscript did not involve human participants. This manuscript complies with the current laws of the United States of America.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This manuscript describes a retrospective review of the literature; for this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

10029_2018_1740_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (797 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 797 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryVA Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care SystemOmahaUSA

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